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General Pharmacology CHAPTER 16. Pharmacology: The science that deals with the origins, ingredients, uses and actions of medical substances.

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Presentation on theme: "General Pharmacology CHAPTER 16. Pharmacology: The science that deals with the origins, ingredients, uses and actions of medical substances."— Presentation transcript:

1 General Pharmacology CHAPTER 16

2 Pharmacology: The science that deals with the origins, ingredients, uses and actions of medical substances.

3 Drug: A substance that alters the body’s functions when absorbed.

4 Medication Information Types or Categories of Medications

5 The EMT who is familiar with the name, dose, route, effects, indications and contraindications of a drug, and has medical director approval, can assist a patient with their medication.

6 Medication Types or Categories  EMS unit medications  Activated charcoal  Oral glucose  Oxygen  Physician-prescribed patient medications  Nitroglycerin  Epinephrine auto-injector  Inhalers

7 Medications - Activated Charcoal

8 Medications - Oral Glucose

9 Medications - Oxygen

10 Medications - Inhaler

11 Medications - Nitroglycerin

12 Medications - Epinephrine

13 Assisting with Medications

14 Medication Names

15 Generic name: The name listed in the United States Pharmacopeia; a government publication listing all medications used in the United States.

16 Trade name: A copyrighted brand name assigned to a medicine by its manufacturer. The trade name is capitalized and followed by the ® symbol.

17 Generic and Trade Names of Selected Medications Generic NameTrade Name Oral glucoseInsta-glucose AlbuterolProventil Nitroglycerin Epinephrine Nitrostat Adrenalin

18 Medication Forms

19 Forms of Medication  Tablet  Gel  Gas  Aerosol  Liquid  Ointment  Paste  Cream  Powder  Syrup  Pill  Capsule

20 Drug Dynamics

21 Drug Actions  Systemic  Affecting the entire body  Local  Affecting a specific area of the body

22 Absorption: Uptake of a substance through some surface of the body.

23 Elimination: The removal of a substance from the body. Drugs are eliminated by way of the liver, kidney, bowels and lungs.

24 Medication Administration Indications and Contraindications

25 Indication: The intended use of a medication for treating a specific illness or condition.

26 Contraindication: A situation in which a medication should not be used due to the potential for harm it might cause a patient.

27 Dose: The prescribed or recommended amount of a medication that should be administered to a patient.

28 Five Rs of Drug Administration  Right patient  Right drug  Right time  Right dose  Right route

29 Administration Routes

30 Routes of Administration  Oral  Generally safe, easy, and economical  Medication is swallowed  Absorbed slowly into digestive tract  Patients must be alert to take medications  Sublingual  Place medication under the tongue  Absorbed rapidly into the capillaries  Digestive tract is bypassed

31 Routes of Administration continued  Inhalation  Fine mist or gas absorbed by the lung capillaries  Patients may need assistance with administration  Onset of action is generally rapid  Delivery of drug is usually an inhaler device

32 Routes of Administration continued  Subcutaneous  Drug is injected under skin into fat  Absorbed slowly by the surrounding bloodstream  Common route for epinephrine  Intravenous  Liquid injected directly into the bloodstream  Usually administered by ALS personnel  Onset of action is immediate

33 Routes of Administration continued  Intramuscular  Drug is injected deep into muscle tissue  Absorbed slowly through capillaries  Common route for epinephrine autoinjectors

34  Topical  Applied and absorbed through the skin  Onset of action is very slow  Common medications administered are NTG patches and creams  Rectal  Drug is given through anus into rectum  Absorbed at rate similar to oral route  Not commonly done in the field Routes of Administration continued

35 If you receive an order to administer a medication, always repeat medication name, dose and route back to the physician for confirmation.

36 Medication Actions Actions

37 Mechanism of action: The desired effect of the drug on the body.

38 Side Effects

39 Side effects: Any action of a drug other than the desired one.

40 Common side effects of numerous medications include nausea and vomiting.

41 Documentation and Reassessment Strategies

42 Medication Documentation  Who ordered the medication - physician and time?  What medication was administered?  What time was the medication administered?  What was the dose given?

43  What was the route?  Who administered the drug?  What were the vital signs before and after administration?  What was the patient’s response to the medication? Medication Documentation continued

44 SUMMARY Medication Information Medication Information Medication Administration Medication Administration Medication Actions Medication Actions  Medication Documentation

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