Language Teaching Approaches and Methods Dr. Desmond Thomas, International Academy, University of Essex.
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Language Teaching Approaches and Methods Dr. Desmond Thomas, International Academy, University of Essex
Why do people learn English? Communication with native speakers Work Career prospects Academic study Travel Access to information Access to literature and culture Prestige?
What do they need to learn? (1) Pronunciation of individual sounds Word and sentence stress Intonation Grammar Vocabulary Language functions
What do they need to learn? (2) Appropriacy in discourse Structure of discourse Language varieties And they need to develop: reading, listening, speaking, writing skills
How languages are learned: theories Behaviourism. "Verbal behaviour" by B.Skinner (1957) Cognitivism (Innatism). "Review of Verbal Behaviour" (1959) and "Syntactic Structures" (1957) by N.Chomsky. Interactionism (Socio-constructivism) See works by Piaget and Vygotsky.
Which approaches lead to success? 1.The structural approach? 2.The notional-functional approach? 3.The communicative approach? 4.The lexical approach? 5.The task-based approach? 6.An eclectic approach?
Approaches leading to methods Grammar-translation (R&R p.3) The direct method (p.9) Situational language teaching (p.31) The audiolingual method (p.44) Communicative language teaching (p.64) and post-CLT Alternative methods: TPR, CLL, Silent Way, Suggestopedia, Natural Approach
Characteristics of CLT Based on the idea of 4 types of communicative competence (grammatical, sociolinguistic, discourse, strategic) and therefore... Focus on function rather than form Focus on linguistic appropriacy Focus on actual language use
Implications for the CLT classroom Communicative speaking activities Communicative writing activities Use of ‘authentic materials’ Emphasis on S-S interaction and on learner autonomy Attitude to error-making changes Role of the teacher changes
Further reading Lightbown, P. & Spada,N. 1999, How Languages are Learned, OUP. Littlewood, W. 1981, Communicative Language Teaching, CUP Richards, J. & Rodgers, T. 1986, Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, CUP