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McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Physical Layer PART II
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Position of the physical layer
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Services
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Chapters Chapter 3 Signals Chapter 4 Digital Transmission Chapter 5 Analog Transmission Chapter 6 Multiplexing Chapter 7 Transmission Media Chapter 8 Circuit Switching and Telephone Network Chapter 9 High Speed Digital Access
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Chapter 7 Transmission Media
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Transmission medium and physical layer Transmission media are actually located below the physical layer and directly controlled by the physical layer. Computer and other telecommunication devices use signals to represent data. These signals are transmitted from one device to another in the form of electromagnetic energy, which is propagated through transmission media.
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Classes of Transmission Media Guided media, which are those that provide a conduit from one device to another. Signal travelling along any of these media is directed and contained by the physical limits of the medium.
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Twisted-Pair Cable One of the wires is used to carry signals to the receiver, and the other is used only as a ground reference. The receiver uses the difference between the two levels. In addition to the signal sent by the sender on one of the wires, interference (noise) and crosstalk may affect both wires and create unwanted signals. The receiver at the end, however, operates only on the difference between these unwanted signals. This means that if the two wires are affected by noise or crosstalk equally, the receiver is immune (the difference is zero). The number of twists per unit of length (e.g., inch) determines the quality of the cable; more twists mean better quality.
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 UTP and STP STP cable has a metal foil or braided-mesh covering that encases each pair of insulated conductors. Although metal casing improves the quality of cable by preventing the penetration of noise or crosstalk, it is bulkier and more expensive.
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Table 7.1 Categories of unshielded twisted-pair cables CategoryBandwidthData RateDigital/AnalogUse 1very low< 100 kbpsAnalogTelephone 2 < 2 MHz2 MbpsAnalog/digitalT-1 lines 3 16 MHz 10 MbpsDigitalLANs 4 20 MHz 20 MbpsDigitalLANs 5 100 MHz 100 MbpsDigitalLANs 6 (draft) 200 MHz 200 MbpsDigitalLANs 7 (draft) 600 MHz 600 MbpsDigitalLANs
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 UTP connector RJ45 (Registered Jack) is the most common UTP connector. RJ45 is a keyed connector, meaning the connector can be inserted in only one way.
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Coaxial cable Coaxial cable (or coax) carries signals of higher frequency ranges than twisted-pair cable, in part because the two media are constructed quite differently. Coax has a central core conductor of solid or stranded wire (usually copper) enclosed in an insulating sheath, which is, in turn, encased in an outer conductor of metal foil, braid, or a combination of the two. The outer metallic wrapping serves both as a shield against noise and as a second conductor, which completes the circuit. This outer conductor is also enclosed in an insulating sheath, and the whole cable is protected by a plastic cover.
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Table 7.2 Categories of coaxial cables CategoryImpedanceUse RG-59 75 Cable TV RG-58 50 Thin Ethernet RG-11 50 Thick Ethernet Each Radio Government (RG) number denotes a unique set of physical specifications, including the wire gauge of the inner conductor, the thickness and type of the inner insulator, the construction of the shield, and the size and type of the outer casing.
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 BNC connectors Bayone-Neill-Concelman Connectors Three popular types are BNC connector, BNC T connector, BNC Terminator. BNC Connector is used to connect the end of the cable to a device, such as a TV set. The BNC T connector is used in Ethernet networks to branch out a cable for connection to a computer or other devices.
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Bending of light ray Fiber-optic cable is made of glass or plastic and transmits signals in the form of light. A glass or plastic core is surrounded by a cladding of less dense glass or plastic. The difference in density of the two materials must be such that a beam of light moving through the core is reflected off the cladding instead of being refracted into it.
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Propagation modes Multimode is so named because multiple beams from a light source move through the core in different paths. Multimode step-index fiber Density of the core remains constant from the center to the edges Beam of light moves through this constant density in a straight line until it reaches the interface of the core and the cladding. At the interface, there is an abrupt change to a lower density that alters the angle of the beam’s motion. The term step index refers to the suddenness of this change.
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Modes Multimode graded-index Fiber The word index here refers to the index of refraction that is related to density. Single mode Fiber Single mode uses step-index fiber and a highly focused source of light that limits beams to a small range of angles, all close to the horizontal.
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Modes
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Table 7.3 Fiber types Type Core µm Cladding µm Mode 50/125 50125Multimode, graded-index 62.5/125 62.5125Multimode, graded-index 100/125100125Multimode, graded-index 7/125 7125Single-mode
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Fiber construction Outer jacket is made of either PVC or Teflon. Inside the jacket are Kevlar strands to strengthen the cable. Kevlar is a strong material used in the fabrication of bulletproof vests. Below the Kevlar is another plastic coating to cushion the fiber. The fiber is at the center of the cable, and it consists of cladding and core.
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Fiber-optic cable connectors Three different types of connectors Subscriber channel (SC) connector is used in cable TV. It uses a push/pull locking system. Straight-tip (ST) connector is used for connecting cable to networking devices. It uses a bayonet locking system and is more reliable than SC. MT-RJ is a new connector with the same size as RJ-45 Fiber optic has several advantages over metallic cable Higher bandwidth, less signal attenuation, immunity to electromagnetic interference, resistance to corrosive materials, light weight, more immune to tapping. Disadvantages: Installation/maintenance [need expertise], Unidirectional [propagation of light is unidirectional], Cost.
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Electromagnetic spectrum for wireless communication Unguided Media: Wireless Signals can travel via ground propagation, sky propagation, line-of-sight propagation.
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Table 7.4 Bands BandRangePropagationApplication VLF3–30 KHzGroundLong-range radio navigation LF30–300 KHzGround Radio beacons and navigational locators MF300 KHz–3 MHzSkyAM radio HF3–30 MHzSky Citizens band (CB), ship/aircraft communication VHF30–300 MHz Sky and line-of-sight VHF TV, FM radio UHF300 MHz–3 GHzLine-of-sight UHF TV, cellular phones, paging, satellite SHF3–30 GHzLine-of-sightSatellite communication EHF30–300 GHzLine-of-sightLong-range radio navigation
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Wireless transmission waves
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Omnidirectional antennas Radio waves are electromagnetic waves ranging in frequencies between 3 KHz and 1 GHz and those between 1 and 300 GHz are called Microwaves. Radio waves Omnidirectional; Propagate to long distances Can penetrate walls and so no boundary. Radio waves are used for multicast communications, such as radio and television, and paging systems
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Unidirectional antennas Microwaves are unidirectional. Very high frequency microwave cannot penetrate walls. Parabolic dish antenna Every line parallel to the line of symmetry (line of sight) reflects off the curve at angles such that all the lines intersect in a common point called the focus. Horn antenna Outgoing transmissions are broadcast up a stem (resembling a handle) and deflected outward in a series of narrow parallel beams by the curved head. Received transmissions are collected by the scooped shape of the horn, in a manner similar to the parabolic dish, and are deflected down into the stem. Microwaves are used for unicast communication such as cellular telephones, satellite networks, and wireless LANs
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Infrared Signals 300 GHz to 400 THz. Infrared signals can be used for short-range communication in a closed area using line-of-sight propagation Cannot penetrate walls. Some manufacturers provide a special port called the IrDA port that allows a wireless keyboard to communicate with a PC.
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Chapter 7 Transmission Media.
Transmission Media Semester: 131 Course: CSET 221 Computer Networking
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7.1 Chapter 7 Transmission Media Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Classes of transmission media
Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable (or coax) carries signals of higher frequency ranges than those in twisted pair cable, in part because the two media are constructed.
Edited by MARINA MD ARSHAD, CSC FSKSM UTM JB
Lecturer: Tamanna Haque Nipa
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