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Lecture 1 Basic structure of computer History of computer development.

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2 Lecture 1 Basic structure of computer History of computer development

3 Basic structure of computer Chapter 1

4 Computer Systems Is a system that includes computer as one of its components

5 Computer Organization Towards the operation units and interconnection which realize computer architecture specification

6 What is a Computer ? Electronic device under the instruction and programming control; and execute four basic operation input processing output storage

7 IPOS cycle IPOS : Input, Processing, Output, Storage

8 Types of Computer Special purpose computer –Eg: Traffic light controller General purpose computer –Computer for individual –Computer for organization

9 Individual Computer Professional workstation Desktop computers Networked computers (NC) Notebook computers Subnotebooks Personal Digital Assistants (PDA)/ –Handheld computers/ Palmtop

10 Computer for Organization Supercomputer –Fastest –Most expensive Mainframe –High speed –More expensive –Process huge amount of data and fast –Support many users –perform server jobs Minicomputer –Performance and speed lesser than mainframe Server

11 Computer Systems Hardware –Physical component of computer such as mechanical & electronic circuit which can be touched Software –Program which instructs computer to do something –Consist from bunch of programming, algorithm and instruction set which can’t be touched

12 Computer Software System software : –All program related to computer operation coordination Eg –Operating System- Windows 98, Mac OS, Unix, Linux, MS Dos –Utility programs –file management –compiler, interpreter Application software –Program that direct computer to do specific task text processing (Microsoft Word), mathematical operation (Microsoft Excel), database management.

13 Personal Computer Hardware Component inside microcomputer system

14 Digital & Analog System Digital System -Any system which handle digital signal (discrete) Analog System Any system which handle analog signal

15 4 Basic Functional Unit of a Computer

16 1. Input Unit Computer receive coded information from input where the function is to read data Example of input device: keyboard, joystick, trackball, mouse.

17 2. Output Unit Its function is to send processed data to be displayed Output device example:

18 3. Storage Unit Store program and data in extended period of time Fix Reliable Easy – to find and fetch data swiftly Compressed storage –Diskettes –500 book pages –Optical Disk –500 books Economy –Save in term of physical storage cost –Convenient and fast in filing and access data

19 Storage type Magnetic disk storage Optical disk –Magneto-optical –CD-ROM –CD-R –CD-RW –DVD-ROM Magnetic Tape Storage

20 Diskette Low capacity– small file Portable Layered with metallic substance Hard plastic jacket for protection 3 ½ inch, 1.44 MB

21 High Capacity Portable Diskette Large file Portable High capacity –120 / 200 MB –Eg: Superdisk Zip disk –250 MB –Not compatible with 3 ½ inch diskette

22 Hard Disk Variety of size (Mb,Gb) Portable characteristic –Generally is not p ortable –Portable hard disk is also available Hard scrap layered with metallic material

23 4. Processing Unit Central Processing Unit (CPU) Types of Storage Program execution Search data inside memory System Unit Microprocessor Semiconductor memory Bus line Speed and power

24 Unit Pemprosesan Pusat(CPU)

25 Central Processing Unit (CPU) Change data to information Control center One set of electronic circuit which execute stored instruction program Two parts –Control Unit (CU) –Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

26 Control Unit Device which responsile to control Instruct computer system to execute program Communicate with other parts inside a device

27 Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Perrform mathematical operation Perrform logical operation

28 Arithmetic Operation Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division

29 Logical Operation Evaluate condition Compare Can compare –Numbers –Characters –Specialized character

30 Register Special purpose High speed Temporary storage Inside CPU Instruction register Hold instruction currently being used Data register Hold data which waiting to be processed Hold answers from processing outcome Output Control Unit ALU Register Memory

31 Types of Storage Secondary –Data which will be used in the end –Long term Main Memory –Data which will be used in short period of time –Temporary –Access faster that secondary storage Register –Data which related to opeation being execute –Access faster than main memory

32 Measure storage capacity KB – kilobyte 1024 byte diskette Cache memory MB – megabyte million byte RAM GB – gigabyte Billion bytes Hard disk CDs and DVDs TB – terabytes Trillion bytes Large hard disk

33 Memory Primary storage Primary memory Main storage Internal storage Main memory

34 Types of memory RAM Random Access Memory ROM Read Only Memory

35 RAM Need electric energy to store data Not fix Data and instruction can be read and altered User always referred to this type of storage

36 What inside a RAM? Operating system Program that’s running Data needed by the program Intermediate answer which wait to be displayed as output

37 ROM Fix Instruction to start computer Data and instuction can be read but can’t be altered Mostly, instruction is written in the factory

38 Execute Program Control unit (CU) received one instruction and placed in memory CU decode the instruction CU inform related device to take action Control in transferred to related device Task executed Control returned to CU

39 Machine Cycle I-time + E-time Instruction time (I-time) CU fetch one instruction inside memory and place in one register CU decode the instruction and determine the memory location for the needed data

40 Machine Cycle Execution time (E-time) Execution –CU moved data from memory to register in ALU –ALU is given the control and execute the instruction –Control is returned to control unit CU store operation answer inside memory or register

41 System Clock Clock system produced pulse in a fix rate Every pulse is one machine cycle One instruction program actually might be consist of a number of instruction to the CPU Every CPU instruction will take one pulse CPU has one instruction set – instructions which it can understand and process

42 Finding data inside a memory Each location inside memory have unique address –Address never change –Content might change Memory location can hold one instruction or one data Programmer used symbolic names

43 Data representation On/Off Binary number system represent circuit condition

44 Bit, Byte, Word BIT –Binary DigIT –On/off circuit –1 or 0 BYTE –8 bit –Store one alphanumeric character –01001010 = J WORD –Register size –Number of BIT processed by CPU in one unit –Differ from one computer to another computer (64bit/8 bit)

45 Coding Scheme One code to determine which bit group representing which character on keyboard ASCII –Use one byte (8-bit) –2 8 = 256 combination or character –Almost all PC and larger computer EBCDIC –Use one byte (8-bit) –2 8 = 256 combination or character –Used mainly on IBM compatible mainframes Unicode –Use two bytes 8-bit (16 bits) –2 16 = 65,536 combination or character –Support character for all language in the world –Compatible with ASCII

46 System Unit Store electronic component –Main board –Storage device –Interconnection A number of Apple Macintosh have system unit in its monitor

47 System Unit Main Board Microprocessor chip Memory chip Interconnection to other device’s parts Additional chip - mathematical processor

48 System Unit Storage Device Hard Drive Disk Drive CD-ROM Drive DVD-ROM Drive

49 Microprocessor CPU etched on chip One chip is ¼ x ¼ inci Consist of silicon Consist of million gates –Electric switch that allows electric supply to flow

50 Microprocesor’s Component Control Unit - CU Arithmetic Logic Unit – ALU Register System clock

51 Development of a better microprocessor Microprocessor computer print circuit on microchip –Cheaper –Faster Perform other device task –Current mathematical co-processor is part of microprocessor –Current multimedia instruction is part of microprocessor

52 Development of a better microprocessor Faster computer execution Cheaper it is made More reliable More functions combined in one microprocessor:

53 Types of Microprocessor Intel Pentium Celeron Xeon and Itanium Compatible Intel Cyrix AMD

54 Types of Microprocessor PowerPC –Collabration of Apple, IBM, and Motorola –Used in Apple Macintosh PC group –Inside server and additional system Alpha –Produced by Compaq –High power server and workstation

55 Semiconductor memory Reliable Small Low cost Low power consumption Economically produced in bulk Not fix All circuit together become one storage unit that can’t be separated

56 Semiconductor memory CMOS Complementary metal oxide semiconductor Use low electric supply Used inside PC to store device control needed to start a computer Store information using power from battery

57 RAM Store instruction and data for current program Data inside memory can be randomly accessed Easy and fast access Not fix Can be erased Able to be Rewrite

58 Types of RAM SRAM (Static RAM) Store content when power exist Faster than DRAM

59 Types of RAM DRAM (dynamic RAM) Must always refresh Used in most PC memory because of size and cost SDRAM –Faster than DRAM Rambus DRAM –Faster than SDRAM –Expensive

60 Adding RAM Buy memory module packaged on circuit board SIMMS – chip on one side DIMMS – chip on two sides Maximum RAM that can be installed is based on main board design

61 ROM Program and data that has been permanently recorded in factory Read only Can’t be changed by user Store start computer routine which is activated when computer is switched on Fix

62 PROM Programmable ROM ROM burner can change instruction on some ROM chip

63 Bus Line Path which transfer electric signal Bus system –Transfer data between CPU and memory Bas width –Bit data numbers which can carried at one time –Most of the time the same size woth CPU word Speed is measured in MHz

64 Bus Line CPU can support more and variety of instruction CPU can support more and variety of instruction Larger bus width = More powerful computer CPU can transfer more data at one time = Faster computer CPU can refer larger address = More memory can be used

65 Expansion Bus Connect main board to expansion slot Attach expansion board to slot –Interface card –Changeable card External connection/port –Serial –Parallel

66 Expansion Bus

67 Bus and PC Port ISASlow device like mouse and modem PCIFast device like hard disk and network card AGPConnect memmory and graphic card to present faster video USBSupport “daisy-chaining” eliminate the needs to have variety type of expansion card; hot change IEEE 1394 (FireWire) High speed bus connects video device with computer PC CardCredit card size PC card devices mostly found in laptop computer

68 Speed and power What make computer fast? Microprocssor speed Bus line size Cache Flash memory RISC type computer Parallel processing

69 Computer processing speed Time to executer one instruction Millisecond Microsecond Nanosecond –Modern Computer Picosecond –In the future

70 Computer processing speed Clock speed –Megahertz (MHz) –Gigahertz (GHz) Number of instruction per second Million Instruction per Second (MIPS) Complex mathematic operation –One million operation floating point per second (Megaflop )

71 Cache Small memory block and temporary Accelerate data transfer Always used recent instruction and data

72 Cache Step 1 Processor ask data or instruction Step 2 Go to address in main memory and read Step 3 Transfer to main CPU and cache The next processor ask See first in cache Go to memory PROCESSORPROCESSOR RAMRAM Cache

73 Types of Cache Internal Cache –Level 1 (L1) –Embed in microprocessor –Up to 128KB External Cache –Level 2 (L2) –External chip –256KB or 512 KB –SRAM technology –Cheaper and slower than L1 –Faster and more expensive than memory

74 Flash memory RAM that is not change Used in –Mobile phone –Digital camera –Digital music recorder –PDA

75 Instruction set CISC Technology Complex Instruction Set Computing –Conventional computer –A lot of the instruction is not used RISC Technology Reduce Instruction Set Computing –Small instruction subset –Increase speed –Program with a number of complex instruction Graphic Engineering

76 Types of processing Serial processing –Executer one instruction at one time –Fetch, decode, execute and store Parallel Processing –More than one processor used simultaneously –Can do trillion floating point per second teraflops –Example: Network server, supercomputer

77 Types of Processing Pipelining –instruction do not need to finish before the next is started –Fetch instruction 1, start to decode and fetch instruction 2

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