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Environmental Review and Assessment of Pesticides in USAID Projects: Issues and Methods.

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Review and Assessment of Pesticides in USAID Projects: Issues and Methods."— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Review and Assessment of Pesticides in USAID Projects: Issues and Methods

2 EA Training Course 2 Pesticides What is a "Pesticide"?  A chemical agent that kills or diminishes the actions of pests.  Pests include harmful insects, other invertebrate organisms, weeds, microorganisms, rodents, and birds

3 EA Training Course 3 Pesticides Pesticides can...  affect non-target ecosystems  affect non-target organisms  become health hazards  persist in the environment  accumulate in the environment (bioaccumulation)  lead to resistance and pest resurgence

4 EA Training Course 4 Pesticides Classes of pesticides  acaricide (mites, ticks, spiders)  algicide  attractant  avicide (birds)  bactericide  defoliant  desiccant  fungicide  growth regulator  herbicide  insecticide  miticide  molluscicide  nematicide  piscicide (fish)  predacide (vertebrates pests)  repellent (for animals)  rodenticide  silvicide (trees & woody shrubs)

5 EA Training Course 5 Pesticides Helpful Reference Documents  USAID documents  FAO and WHO publications, guidelines, and data sheets  FAO prior informed consent (pic)  Codex Alimentarius  GIFAP guidelines  FAO technical notebooks (plant production and protection studies)  environmental health criteria series  IPCS health and safety guides  Local laws and regulations

6 EA Training Course 6 Pesticides What’s on the Pesticide Label  brand name; chemical name; common name  formulation; ingredients; contents  manufacturer; registration/establishment numbers  signal words; precautionary statements  statement of practical treatment  statement of use classification  directions of use; misuse statement  reentry statement  storage and disposal directions; warranty

7 EA Training Course 7 Pesticides Pesticide ER Content and Form 1.Cover page 2.Summary 3.Introduction 4.Pesticide procedures 5.Mitigative measures & requirements 6.Reference cited 7.Collaborators and persons contacted 8.Recommended distributions 9.Annexes

8 EA Training Course 8 Pesticides Reg 16. Pesticide Procedures  For each proposed pesticide, the following should be indicated: 22 CFR 216.3 (b) (1)  EPA registration status;  Basis for selection;  Relationship to any IPM program;  Application method, including safety equipment;  Acute and long-term toxicological hazards, and measures available to minimize them;  Effectiveness for proposed use;

9 EA Training Course 9 Pesticides Reg 16. Pesticide Procedures (cont.)  Compatibility with target and non-target ecosystems;  Conditions of use (climate, flora, fauna, soils,...);  Availability and effectiveness of other pesticides or non-chemical control methods;  The requesting country's ability to regulate or control its distribution, storage, use, and disposal;  Provisions for training and applicators;  Provisions for monitoring use and effectiveness.

10 EA Training Course 10 Pesticides Alternatives to Chemicals (Insects/Invertebrates)  biological control  plant resistance  environmental manipulation  induced sexual sterility  physical & chemical control  attraction and repellency  genetic manipulation of pest populations, plants, and pathogens  disease-resistant plant breeds  use of antagonists, hyper- parasites & natural enemies  disease- and nematode- free seed and propagating material  crop rotation & soil management  vector control  sanitation

11 EA Training Course 11 Pesticides Alternatives to Chemicals (Weeds)  biological control  environmental manipulation  natural stimulants and inhibitors  plant competition  revegetation of weed- and brush- infected grazing lands  breeding highly competitive forage species  oversowing  green manures and cover crops  crop rotations

12 EA Training Course 12 Pesticides Alternatives to Chemicals (Vertebrate Pests)  noise and physical repellents  chemical repellents  visual repellents  trapping and shooting  behavior  environmental manipulation  exclusion

13 EA Training Course 13 Pesticides Some USEPA Criteria for Pesticide Review  oncogenicity & mutagenicity & carcinogenicity  teratogenicity & fetotoxicity  toxic effects in liver, kidney, or thyroid  neurotoxicity  reproductive and testicular effects  availability of antidote and emergency treatment  hazards to wildlife  acute and chronic toxicity to non-target organisms and endangered species  hazard to aquatic organisms and birds  bioaccumulation  ground water contamination

14 EA Training Course 14 Pesticides Steps in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) 1. Identify the major pests and establish economic injury levels 2. Select the best mix of control techniques 3. Monitor the field regularly 4. Use all control methods correctly and safely 5. Comply with all legal controls 6. Develop educational, training, and demonstration programs for farmers and extension workers

15 EA Training Course 15 Pesticides Summary of Mitigation Measures and Requirements  emphasize non-chemical methods of pest control and IPM systems  provide pesticide training and protection to project personnel and participating farmers  monitor pesticide use  comply with local laws and regulations

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