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Stratospheric Ozone Stratosphere is about 10,000 m to 49,000 m Temperatures about -50 o C until 30,000 m and then increase to about 23 o C. Increase due.

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Presentation on theme: "Stratospheric Ozone Stratosphere is about 10,000 m to 49,000 m Temperatures about -50 o C until 30,000 m and then increase to about 23 o C. Increase due."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stratospheric Ozone Stratosphere is about 10,000 m to 49,000 m Temperatures about -50 o C until 30,000 m and then increase to about 23 o C. Increase due to absorption of UV by ozone/oxygen. Ozone protects earth surface from UV rays.

2 Ozone Formation/Destruction in the Stratosphere

3 Ozone Depletion World-wide monitoring shows stratospheric ozone decreasing for more than two decades. Since the 1970s, an ozone hole has formed over Antarctica in which up to 60 % of the total ozone is depleted. Depletion of ozone primarily due to ChloroFluoroCarbons (CFCs)

4 What are CFCs CFCs are commonly used as refrigerants, solvents, and foam blowing agents. The most common CFCs are CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CFC-114, and CFC- 115.

5 CFC Production Freon 11 is fluorodichloromethane and has a structure of CCl 3 F Carbon tetrachloride, methyl bromide and methyl chloroform and other halons also destroy the ozone layer

6 CFC production in US HCFC (hydrogenated CFCs) are more reactive in troposphere and so less destructive to ozone layer Brominated compounds also more reactive in troposphere but Br is 40 times more efficient at destroying ozone than chlorine.

7 How do CFCs affect ozone? CFCs - unreactive in the troposphere and move unchanged to stratosphere Short-wave UV light in stratosphere breaks down CFCs and chlorine is released Much of the chlorine reacts to form HCl or other compounds that do not react with ozone  Cl + O 3  ClO + O 2  ClO + O  Cl + O 2  ClO + ClO  Cl 2 O 2  Cl 2 + O 2  Cl 2 can photodissociate to form more chlorine atoms

8 “A single chlorine atom can destroy as many as 100,000 ozone molecules during residence in stratosphere”


10 Ozone Depleting Potential All CFCs are not created equal The ozone depleting potential (ODP) is the ratio of the impact on ozone of a chemical compared to the impact of a similar mass of CFC-11. Thus, the ODP of CFC-11 is defined to be 1.0. HFCs have zero ODP because they do not contain chlorine. Other CFCs and HCFCs have ODPs that range from 0.01 to 1.0. The halons have ODPs ranging up to 10. Carbon tetrachloride has an ODP of 1.2, and methyl chloroform's ODP is 0.11.

11 CFC characteristics CompoundLifetime (years) ODPGWP-2CAS No. CFC-11 (CCl 3 F) Trichlorofluoromethane 45 1460075-69-4 CFC-12 (CCl 2 F 2 ) Dichlorodifluoromethane 100 11060075-71-8 CFC-113 (C 2 Cl 3 F 3 ) Trichlorotrifluoroethane 85 0.8600076-13-1 CFC-114 (C 2 Cl 2 F 4 ) Dichlorotetrafluoroethane 300 1980076-14-2 CFC-115 (C 2 ClF 5 ) Monochloropentafluor ethane 1700 0.61030076-15-3

12 Ozone Depletion Means Increase in UV radiation (UVB) UVB has been linked to skin cancer, cataracts, damage to crops, damage to marine organisms (like reefs), damage to plastics Picture shows squamous cell carcinoma in elderly patient

13 Skin cancer is definitely related to UV/sunlight exposure Basal cell carcinomaMalignant melanoma

14 Montreal Protocol 1989 Global Treaty to protect ozone layer Currently 140 countries are parties Timetable to reduce and end production and consumption of 8 major halocarbons Many governments committed to early phase outs

15 Global Climate Change Earth’s temperature - balance between solar radiation input and reflection and reradiation of energy from earth back into space. Atmospheric gases trap some outgoing energy, retaining heat - The Greenhouse Effect





20 Solar energy blocked by atmospheric sulfates (radiating force in watts per square meter)



23 What are greenhouse gases? Carbon dioxide – burning of fossil fuels, wood products. Methane – production of coal, gas and oil. Decomposition of wastes at landfills. Raising livestock. Nitrous oxide – industrial and agricultural activites. CFCs, HFCs, sulfur hexafluoride – generated in industrial processes. Water vapor, ozone.

24 Global Warming Potential (GWP) Global Warming Potential: a number that refers to the amount of global warming caused by a substance The GWP is the ratio of the warming caused by a substance to the warming caused by a similar mass of carbon dioxide. Thus, the GWP of CO 2 is defined to be 1.0. Methane is 21. Nitrous Oxide (N 2 O) is 310. CFC-12 has a GWP of 8,500, while CFC-11 has a GWP of 5,000. Various HCFCs and HFCs have GWPs ranging from 93 to 12,100. SF 6 is 23,900. Water, a substitute in numerous end-uses, has a GWP of 0.


26 GHG Emissions from various sources in the US

27 Methane emissions in US

28 CFC Emissions in US

29 Nitrous oxide emission in US


31 Percentage of total energy consumed in US as fossil fuels, renewables and nuclear.

32 Effects of climate change Ecosystem decline such as Everglades, coral reefs Flooding/desertific ation Human health issues Agricultural impacts



35 Change in ecological systems

36 Increases in precipitation and extreme weather events can lead to flooding

37 Health Issues Warmer climates in temperate zones can mean that tropical and subtropical diseases can enlarge their range. Infectious diseases like cholera more likely in warm climates. Hotter temperatures increase deaths as it aggravates cardiovascular and respiratory problems.

38 Human populations at risk Severe shifts in agriculture due to extreme weather, extended droughts and flooding. For example, glaciers have disappeared in Northern India, severely affecting the region where farmers rely on melting of glaciers for irrigation.

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