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**Chapter 9: Graphs Basic Concepts**

Mark Allen Weiss: Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis in Java Chapter 9: Graphs Basic Concepts Lydia Sinapova, Simpson College

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**Graphs – Basic Concepts**

Basic definitions: vertices and edges More definitions: paths, simple paths, cycles, loops Connected and disconnected graphs Spanning trees Complete graphs Weighted graphs and networks Graph representation Adjacency matrix Adjacency lists

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**Basic Graph Definitions**

A graph is a mathematical object that is used to model different situations – objects and processes: Linked list Tree (partial instance of graph) Flowchart of a program City map Electric circuits Course curriculum

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Vertices and Edges Definition: A graph is a collection (nonempty set) of vertices and edges Vertices: can have names and properties Edges: connect two vertices, can be labeled, can be directed Adjacent vertices: there is an edge between them

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**Example Vertices: A,B,C,D Edges: AB, AC, BC, CD A C B D A B C D Graph1**

Two ways to draw the same graph

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**Directed and undirected graphs**

B C D These are two different graphs

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**More definitions : Path**

A list of vertices in which successive vertices are connected by edges A B C B A C D A B C A B C A B C D B A B A C A B C D

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**More definitions : Simple Path**

No vertex is repeated. A B C D D C A D C B A B A B C A B C D

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**More definitions : Cycle**

Simple path with distinct edges, except that the first vertex is equal to the last A B C D A B C A B A C B C B A C A graph without cycles is called acyclic graph.

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**More definitions : Loop**

An edge that connects the vertex with itself A B C D

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**Connected and Disconnected graphs**

Connected graph: There is a path between each two vertices Disconnected graph : There are at least two vertices not connected by a path. Examples of disconnected graphs: A B C D

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Graphs and Trees Tree: an undirected graph with no cycles, and a node chosen to be the root A B C E D Source graph:

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Graphs and Trees A C E B D C A E B D Tree1: root A Tree2: root C

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**A spanning tree of an undirected graph**

A sub-graph that contains all the vertices, and no cycles. If we add any edge to the spanning tree, it forms a cycle, and the tree becomes a graph A B C D A B graph spanning tree C D

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Examples A B C D All spanning trees of the graph on the previous slide

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Complete graphs Graphs with all edges present – each vertex is connected to all other vertices A B C D E Dense graphs: relatively few of the possible edges are missing Sparse graphs: relatively few of the possible edges are present A complete graph

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**Weighted graphs and Networks**

Weighted graphs – weights are assigned to each edge (e.g. road map) Networks: directed weighted graphs (some theories allow networks to be undirected) B 2 1 C A 2 4 3 D

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Graph Representation Adjacency matrix Adjacency lists

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**Adjacency matrix – undirected graphs**

Vertices: A,B,C,D Edges: AC, AB, AD, BD A B C D A B C D The matrix is symmetrical A B C D

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**Adjacency matrix – directed graphs**

Vertices: A,B,C,D Edges: AC, AB, BD, DA A B C D A B C D A B C D

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**Adjacency lists – undirected graphs**

Vertices: A,B,C,D Edges: AC, AB, AD, BD Heads lists A B C D B A D C A D A B A B C D

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**Adjacency lists – directed graphs**

Vertices: A,B,C,D Edges: AC, AB, BD, DA Heads lists A B C B D C = D A A B C D

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