# Quantitative Evidence for Marketing Data Library, Rutherford North 1 st Floor Chuck Humphrey Data Library March 6, 2009.

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Quantitative Evidence for Marketing Data Library, Rutherford North 1 st Floor Chuck Humphrey Data Library March 6, 2009

Outline  Quantitative evidence  Distinction between statistics and data  Observational evidence  Statistics are about definitions and classifications  Aggregate data and microdata  Understanding the Census  Access to evidence  Statistical and aggregate data sources  Microdata sources

Distinguishing statistics from data

How statistics and data differ Statistics numeric summaries known as facts/figures derived from data, i.e, processed from data presentation-ready format Data numeric files created and organized for computer analysis requires computer processing not in a display format

Observational evidence Most of the quantitative evidence in marketing research is from observational methods, such as surveys or administrative/transactional databases. There are four properties of observational methods that are essential to understand.  When were the observations done (time)  Where were the observations done (geography)  Who was observed (unit of observation & its universe)  What was observed about the unit of observation (variables)

Statistics are about definitions! You may think of statistics as being just numbers, but these numbers represent summaries of measurements or observations that have a conceptual meaning. Deriving statistics from data is dependent on definitions of the concept that is being summarized. definitions

Statistics are about definitions! Consider the following example from the Canadian Census on the data behind statistics about visible minorities. This table displays the size of the visible minority population in Canada from the 2006 Census. Visible Minority Groups (15), Generation Status (4), Age Groups (9) and Sex (3) for the Population 15 Years and Over of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census - 20% Sample Data

Statistics are about definitions! How is visible minority status identified in the Census? Are aboriginals among the visible minority in Canada? What is the definition of visible minority?

Statistics involve classifications The definitions that shape statistics specify the metric of the data they summarize (for example, Canadian dollars) or the categories used to classify things if a statistic represents counts or frequencies. In this latter case, classification systems are used to identify categories of membership in a concept’s definition. Some classification systems are based on standards while others are based on convention or practice. For an example of a standard, see the North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS).NAICS

Statistics are presentation ready Tables and charts (or graphs) are typically used to display many statistics at once. You will find statistics sprinkled in text as part of a narrative describing some phenomenon; but tables and charts are the primary methods of organizing and presenting statistics.

A quick review To this point, we have established that:  Statistics are ‘real’ only if they are derived from data;  Observational evidence always involves when- where-who-what factors;  Statistics are dependent of definitions of the concepts they summarize;  Statistics that represent counts of things in the data employ classification systems, which are based either on standards or convention; and  Statistics are typically organized for display using tables or charts.

Microdata and aggregate data Microdata produced from the level of the unit of observation created from survey or administrative databases Aggregate Data statistics organized in a data file structure derived from microdata sources used in GIS & time series analysis

The Census The Census is one of the most important sources of statistical information about Canada. It is the largest survey conducted in Canada and, consequently, is the primary source for small area statistics. To use data from the Census, you must know:  The aggregate characteristics from the Census available for the various geographic units;  The variety of geographic units used to disseminate Census results; and  The codes used to represent the various Census geographic units.

Census of Population Two forms are used to collect the Census: 2A, which goes to 80% of the households, and 2B, which goes to the other 20%. In 2006, the 2A form contained 8 questions while the 2B form had these 8 and 53 additional questions. Long history of specific questions (see the Census Handbook.)history of specific questions You need to understand the content of the Census to know what statistics are possible from the Census.

Post- Censal PALS EDS APS PUMF RDC STATS STC Website E-STAT Custom Tabulations DLI CENSUS 2006 DATA Public Use Microdata Aggregate Confidential Microdata

Geographic Unit Geo-code

Geo-referenced data The unit analysis makes up the rows in the data file and is the object being described by the other variables the file. The values for this variable are geo-codes for Census tracts.

Geo-referenced data This case in the data file represents Census Tract 0023.00, which was shown in the image two slides earlier.

The variety of geographic units Statistics Canada groups the variety of geographic units associated with the Census into two categories: Source for the graphics: Illustrated Glossary, 2006 Census Geography, Statistics Canada Source: Illustrated Glossary, 2006 Census Geography, Statistics Canada

Census geo-codes Statistics Canada has two categories of geo-code systems:  Standard Geographic Classification (SGC)  Other geographic entities Source for the graphic: Illustrated Glossary, 2006 Census Geography, Statistics Canada

Standard geographic classification Source: Illustrated Glossary, 2006 Census Geography, Statistics Canada

Standard geographic classification, 2006 The link to Definitions, data sources and methods on the main page of the Statistics Canada website provides a link to Standard Classifications, which includes Geography. Definitions, data sources and methods Geography

Other geographic entities Census Metropolitan Areas Source for the graphic: Illustrated Glossary, 2006 Census Geography, Statistics Canada Metropolitan Areas 2006Map of Edmonton CMA

Access to evidence The University of Alberta Library subscribes to a number of online statistical and aggregate data services.University of Alberta Library For Census statistics and aggregate data, use the E-STAT portal to Census tables. Also available are tables from the Census site on Statistics Canada’s website and from the Library’s GET DATA NOW site.GET DATA NOW For Canadian time series, use the E-STAT portal to CANSIM.

CANSIM CANSIM is a very large database containing socio-economic statistics for Canada. There are currently over 38 million time series organized in approximately 2,800 tables. The statistics in CANSIM come from surveys (e.g., the Labour Force Survey), administrative data (e.g., crime and justice) and simulations or models (e.g., population projections).surveyscrime and justicepopulation projections Geography, content and time are basic to retrieving time series from CANSIM.

Other statistical sources Consult the Market Research Guide on the Library homepage. In particular, see the sources listed under “Location & size of user market.”Market Research Guide Two products worth considering:  Tablebase contains statistics from the trade literature. Tablebase Use keyword searches to find tables of interest and then conduct new searches employing the index terms assigned to them.  PMB contains statistics about Canadian consumer demographics for specific product information. PMB

Microdata The University of Alberta Library has a subscription with Statistics Canada to access all of its public use microdata, which are files that have been anonymized to reduce the risk of disclosure.public use microdata There is some online access through the GET DATA NOW. All other access is through the Data Library, which located in Rutherford North, 1 st floor next to the main staircase (phone: 780-492-5212). GET DATA NOW

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