Chapter 18 – Water in the atmosphere Page 388 How would you describe the cloud in this photo? If you saw this cloud in the sky, what type of weather would.
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Chapter 18 – Water in the atmosphere Page 388 How would you describe the cloud in this photo? If you saw this cloud in the sky, what type of weather would you expect? How do clouds form? Why do clouds sometimes produce rain?
Humidity and Condensation Water vapor strongly affects the weather
Characteristics of water water is the only substance that commonly exists in all 3 states –S–S–S–Solid 0 Celsius or lower –L–L–L–Liquid between 0 Celsius and 100 Celsius –A–A–A–Above 100 Celsius water vapor condensation gas Liquid - Release heat evaporation liquid gas - absorbs heat
Humidity Specific humidity – the actual amount of water vapor in the air. 20 grams/kilograms of air is very humid Saturated air – rare of evaporation = the rate of Condensation Warmer air can hold more water vapor Relative humidity – How near the air is to maximum capacity. 0 – 100% Measuring Humidity – Psychrometer – wet and dry bulb tem. If they both read the same – no water is evaporating 100%
Condensation At Night as air cools it ability to hold water decreases. If it cools past the point of saturation condensation occurs, forming clouds, dew, or fog Dew Point - the temperature at which saturation occurs and condensation begins C C oooo oooo llll iiii nnnn gggg a a a a nnnn dddd c c c c oooo nnnn dddd eeee nnnn ssss aaaa tttt iiii oooo nnnn – – – – w w w w aaaa tttt eeee rrrr v v v v aaaa pppp oooo rrrr m m m m uuuu ssss tttt hhhh aaaa vvvv eeee s s s s oooo mmmm eeee tttt hhhh iiii nnnn gggg t t t t oooo c c c c oooo nnnn dddd eeee nnnn ssss eeee o o o o nnnn tttt oooo o o o o nnnn cccc eeee i i i i tttt g g g g oooo eeee ssss bbbb eeee llll oooo wwww d d d d eeee wwww p p p p oooo iiii nnnn tttt
Condensation nuclei, such as salt, sulfate particles, or nitrate particles are in the air. Dew vs. Frost – above freezing surface dew will form – Below freezing frost F F oooo rrrr mmmm aaaa tttt iiii oooo nnnn o o o o ffff F F F F oooo gggg – – – – O O O O cccc cccc uuuu rrrr ssss w w w w hhhh eeee nnnn c c c c oooo llll dddd s s s s uuuu rrrr ffff aaaa cccc eeee ssss cccc oooo oooo llll w w w w aaaa rrrr mmmm m m m m oooo iiii ssss tttt a a a a iiii rrrr –S–S–S–Slight air movements keep the droplets suspended Advection Fog – warm moist air blows over cool surface. Northern U.S. Southerly winds blow over snow
Discussion – Page 394 Why would the melting of ice on the fruit in the morning be a cause for concern? Why would the melting of ice on the fruit in the morning be a cause for concern?
Clouds P 396 Clouds form when air cools to its dew point. Can form at any altitude in troposphere Clouds form when air cools to its dew point. Can form at any altitude in troposphere Clouds form when air cools to its dew point. Can form at any altitude in troposphere Clouds form when air cools to its dew point. Can form at any altitude in troposphere
Types of Clouds – Cloud names are formed from one or more of the same 5 words S S tttt rrrr aaaa tttt uuuu ssss a a a a nnnn dddd s s s s tttt rrrr aaaa tttt oooo – – – – – clouds that form in layers C C uuuu mmmm uuuu llll uuuu ssss a a a a nnnn dddd c c c c uuuu mmmm uuuu llll oooo – – – – – describe clouds that grow upward (heap) Fluffy clouds with flat bases C iiii rrrr rrrr uuuu ssss a a a a nnnn dddd C C C C iiii rrrr rrrr oooo - Describe feathery clouds (curl of hair) high feathery ice clouds A A llll tttt oooo – between 2000-7000 meters N N iiii mmmm bbbb uuuu ssss a a a a nnnn dddd N N N N iiii mmmm bbbb oooo – – – – – Dark rain clouds
Cloud Formation If cloud temp is below -20C cloud is made mostly of ice and snow As warm air rises it cools. When it reaches a height where it hits the dew point, clouds form – Condensation Level Unsaturated air cools at a rate of 10C for every kilometer it rises – dry–adiabatic lapse rate Saturated air cools 5-9C/Km - moist-adiabatic lapse rate The cooling as air rises is due to the expansion of the air
Cumulonimbus Clouds - Heat from condensation keeps the air inside a cumulus cloud less dense that the surrounding air which makes it grow vertically Meteorologist can predict cloud height if they know: Temperature of the clouds, dew point and the rate at which the rising air cools. Layer clouds or stratiform form in stable hair Stable air: If the temp of rising air inside the cloud decrease more quickly than the temp outside the cloud
Precipitation Any form of water that falls form a cloud to the earth’s surface Any form of water that falls form a cloud to the earth’s surface
How precipitation forms Growth of water droplets in a cloud occurs by bumping Growth of Ice Crystals – temp in the upper clouds are cold enough to freeze the droplets, as the ice falls it collects more droplets Kinds of Precipitation –S–S–S–Sleet – frozen rain droplets –F–F–F–Freezing rain – occurs when rain hits a surface and freezes – ice sheet or glaze will form –H–H–H–H aaaa iiii llll – – – – B B B B aaaa llll llll s s s s hhhh aaaa pppp eeee dddd i i i i cccc eeee f f f f rrrr oooo mmmm t t t t hhhh uuuu nnnn dddd eeee rrrr ssss tttt oooo rrrr mmmm ssss
Measuring Precipitation Measured in a rain gauge by 1\100th of an inch Snow is measured by using a ruler or snow stick. 1 inch of rain is about 10 inches of snow
Weather Modification Dry Ice (frozen CO2) into clouds which cools the cloud and form ice crystals Artificial nuclei such as a silver iodide is dropped into the cloud for more condensation to occur