Dr. Montville Fall 2009. AMA – Nutrition is, “The science of food, the nutrients and substances therein, their interaction, action, and balance in relation.
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AMA – Nutrition is, “The science of food, the nutrients and substances therein, their interaction, action, and balance in relation to health and disease….” and the digestive and metabolic processes therein.
1 calorie = Amount of energy required to raise temp of 1g of water by 1 C Relating to food and nuts, 1,000 cal = 1 Kilo calorie = 1 Calorie Energy needs: – Basal metabolism = f(lean body mass) – 60 – 70 % of basal requirement is from muscle. – 25-40% from physical activity – 10% “keeping warm”
Calories count – Intake > used: Gain weight – Intake < used: Lose weight – Intake = used: Maintain weight Easier to keep weight off than lose it Body has “set point” – Controlled by: Exercise Intake control Behavior modification
Calories and exercise- Dr. Montville’s cycling odyssey Moving 175 lbs at 16.2 mph requires 700 calories per hour M.S. ride: 80 miles at 16.2 mph = 5 hours Caloric expenditure = 3,500 calories Weight: Gain or lose?
Ways to monitor “appropriate weight”: – Height and weight tables – Body mass index (BMI) BMI = Weight (kgs) % (height in meters) 2 – “Should” be 18-25 – > 30 = obese; Over-estimates risk in muscular people (athletes)
“I’m not overweight, I’m under height.” Under height: Heart disease, diabetes, stroke Shorter life span ~10% dip in earning Less likely to finish college Smaller lungs, narrower vessels U.S. losing height
Extreme weight loss <85% of ideal body weight Distorted body image Societal pressure Control needs 90% women, 10% male Amenorrhea Can be Fatal
Lower body temperature Lanuga (downy hair on skin) Rough dry skin Low blood pressure Low white blood cell count Depression Tooth loss
Binge and purge 2x/week for 2-3 months Single binge up to 12,000 calories Lack of control and inappropriate compensation 40% male, 60% female, 5-17% of college age females They recognize behavior as: – Abnormal – Secretive ½ have major depression
Slightly above normal body weight Tooth demineralization Esophageal damage Low potassium, arrhythmia
Eat a variety of foods – best source of nutrients is their natural source. Eat a balanced diet – don’t over-consume any one product Single food diets hard to maintain long term. Eat in moderation – beware of “super-sizing” and “special occasion” eating. Be aware of nutrient density – ideally % daily calories should about equal daily nutritional needs. Beware of energy (calorie) density – nuts have more calories per unit weight than fruits do. Fried foods have more calories than the same food baked or broiled. INCREASE ACTIVITY!!!! Building muscle mass increases basal rate of caloric burn.
Nutrition is more than weight control (from last lecture) Weight Control – Calories count – Methods of monitoring “weight” % Body fat – case study, Dr. Montville weight “Diets” – A diet that works – Akins and Pritkins Eating Disorders – Anorexia nervosa – Bulimia