1 Charts and graphs. 2 Agenda value and limits of graphical analysis how to create and read and interpret graphs basic types of graphs and conditions.
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Presentation on theme: "1 Charts and graphs. 2 Agenda value and limits of graphical analysis how to create and read and interpret graphs basic types of graphs and conditions."— Presentation transcript:
11 Pie charts 1.Slices represent shares of a whole. 2.The categories that comprise the variable must be qualitatively different or crude rankings. 3.The slices/categories must exhaust the possibilities. 4.The number of slices must be small. Avoid having many narrow slices. 5.Must include a legend.
18 Bar and column graphs Interchangeable. Can be used with any kind of frequency count data. Can be used to show multiple series of data. Legend required if using more than one series.
19 Line graphs: Don’t create them using the “line graph” option in Excel.... The results are funky. (A technical term) Use “xy scatter” with connection of points instead.
20 xy scatter graphs Can only be used when both variables are quantitative. Show the relationship between two variables. The causal variable goes on the x (horizontal) axis.
21 Self-explanatory Key is title and labels 1.Title should be clear, concise, complete. 2.All variables must be named. 3.Measurement units must be properly stated. 4.Time period must be stated. 5.Spatial or geographic domain must be specified.
22 Simple and uncluttered 1.Limited number of variables 2.No unnecessary legends. 3.No distracting colors and shading. 4.Consistent colors and shading. 5.Use colors or patterns that will be distinct if printed in black & white.
23 Misleading graphs and charts. Truncated y-axis Unlabeled axes Arbitrary axis dimensions 3-dimensional pictograms 3-dimensional pie charts Line graphs with data gaps