# Bond Prices and Yields Chapter 14. Face or par value Coupon rate - Zero coupon bond Compounding and payments - Accrued Interest Indenture Bond Characteristics.

## Presentation on theme: "Bond Prices and Yields Chapter 14. Face or par value Coupon rate - Zero coupon bond Compounding and payments - Accrued Interest Indenture Bond Characteristics."— Presentation transcript:

Bond Prices and Yields Chapter 14

Face or par value Coupon rate - Zero coupon bond Compounding and payments - Accrued Interest Indenture Bond Characteristics

Different Issuers of Bonds U.S. Treasury - Notes and Bonds Corporations Municipalities International Governments and Corporations Innovative Bonds - Indexed Bonds - Floaters and Reverse Floaters

Secured or unsecured Call provision Convertible provision Put provision (putable bonds) Floating rate bonds Sinking funds Provisions of Bonds

Rating companies - Moody’s Investor Service - Standard & Poor’s - Duff and Phelps - Fitch Rating Categories - Investment grade - Speculative grade Default Risk and Ratings

Coverage ratios Leverage ratios Liquidity ratios Profitability ratios Cash flow to debt Factors Used by Rating Companies

Sinking funds Subordination of future debt Dividend restrictions Collateral Protection Against Default

P B =Price of the bond C t = interest or coupon payments T = number of periods to maturity y = semi-annual discount rate or the semi-annual yield to maturity Bond Pricing

t=1 +  20 = P B 40 1 ( 1+.03) t 1000 1 ( 1+.03 ) 20 C t = 40 (SA) P= 1000 T= 20 periods r= 3% (SA) P B = \$1,148.77 Solving for Price: 10-yr, 8% Coupon Bond, Face = \$1,000

Prices and Yields (required rates of return) have an inverse relationship When yields get very high the value of the bond will be very low When yields approach zero, the value of the bond approaches the sum of the cash flows Bond Prices and Yields

Price Yield Prices and Coupon Rates

Yield to Maturity Interest rate that makes the present value of the bond’s payments equal to its price Solve the bond formula for r

Yield to Maturity Example 10 yr MaturityCoupon Rate = 7% Price = \$950 Solve for r = semiannual rate r = 3.8635%

Yield Measures Bond Equivalent Yield 7.72% = 3.86% x 2 Effective Annual Yield (1.0386) 2 - 1 = 7.88% Current Yield Annual Interest / Market Price \$70 / \$950 = 7.37 %

Realized Yield versus YTM Reinvestment Assumptions Holding Period Return - Changes in rates affects returns - Reinvestment of coupon payments - Change in price of the bond

Holding-Period Return: Single Period HPR = [ I + ( P 0 - P 1 )] / P 0 where I = interest payment P 1 = price in one period P 0 = purchase price

Holding-Period Example CR = 8% YTM = 8%N=10 years Semiannual CompoundingP 0 = \$1000 In six months the rate falls to 7% P 1 = \$1068.55 HPR = [40 + ( 1068.55 - 1000)] / 1000 HPR = 10.85% (semiannual)

Holding-Period Return: Multiperiod Requires actual calculation of reinvestment income Solve for the Internal Rate of Return using the following: - Future Value: sales price + future value of coupons - Investment: purchase price

Download ppt "Bond Prices and Yields Chapter 14. Face or par value Coupon rate - Zero coupon bond Compounding and payments - Accrued Interest Indenture Bond Characteristics."

Similar presentations