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Introduction to Hypothesis Testing CJ 526 Statistical Analysis in Criminal Justice

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Hypotheses 1. A hypothesis is a prediction about the outcome of a research study

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Hypothesis Testing 1. Hypothesis testing is an inferential procedure that uses sample data to evaluate the credibility of a hypothesis about a population

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Overview of Hypothesis Testing 1. State a hypothesis about a population 1. Usually in terms of the value of a population parameter 1. Typically the mean or the difference between means

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Overview of Hypothesis Testing -- Continued 4. If the data are consistent with the hypothesis, conclude that the hypothesis was reasonable, and fail to reject it

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Example Babies born to women who smoke during pregnancy will be more likely to be of low birth weight Independent Variable: Smoking during pregnancySmoking during pregnancy Dependent Variable: Birth weightBirth weight

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Example -- Continued 1. Obtain a random sample of women who are pregnant and smoke 2. Weigh the babies at birth 3. Compare sample data to hypothesis 4. Make decision: 1. Reject the hypothesis 2. Fail to reject the hypothesis

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Assumptions Behind Hypothesis Testing 1. The effect of the Independent Variable (treatment effect) is assumed to: 1. Add (or subtract) a constant from every individual’s score

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The Logic of Hypothesis Testing 1. Can’t prove hypothesis 1. Proof requires evidence for all cases

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Steps in Hypothesis Testing 1. Determine the number of samples (groups, conditions) 1. One 2. Two 3. k (three or more)

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Steps in Hypothesis Testing -- continued 2. If there are two or more samples, determine whether they are independent or dependent 1. Same group (repeated-measures) 2. Match on some other variable(s) known to influence DV (matched-subjects)

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Steps in Hypothesis Testing -- continued 3. If there is one sample and the Dependent Variable is at the Interval or Ratio Level of Measurement, is the standard deviation of the population (, sigma) known: 1. If is known, use a One-Sample z-Test 2. If is unknown, use a One-Sample t-Test

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Steps in Hypothesis Testing -- continued 4. Identify the independent variable 5. Identify the dependent variable and its level of measurement 6. Identify the population to which inferences will be made

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Steps in Hypothesis Testing -- continued 7. Determine the appropriate inferential statistical test 1. Number of samples 2. Nature of samples (if applicable) 3. Level of measurement of DV 8. State the null hypothesis 9. State the alternative hypothesis

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Steps in Hypothesis Testing -- continued 10. State Decision Rule: 1. If the p-value of the obtained test statistic is less than.05, reject the Null Hypothesis 11. Use SPSS to compute the obtained test statistic 12. Make decision 13. Interpret results

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Truncated Steps 1. State the hypotheses

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1. State the Hypotheses 1. State the null hypothesis

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Null Hypothesis 1. The null hypothesis predicts that the Independent Variable (treatment) will have no effect on the Dependent Variable for the population

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Alternative Hypothesis 1. The alternative hypothesis predicts that the Independent Variable (treatment) will have an effect on the Dependent Variable for the population

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Directional Alternative Hypotheses 1.Researcher has reason to believe before conducting the test that a difference will lie in a specified direction 1. Prior research 2. Theory

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Nondirectional Alternative Hypotheses 1.Researcher has no reason to believe that there will be a difference in a specified direction

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2. Set the Criteria 1.Because of sampling error, there is likely to be a discrepancy between the sample mean and the population mean

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3. Collect Sample Data 1. Obtained test statistic

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4. Evaluate the Null Hypothesis 1.Reject the null hypothesis 1. If sample data is unlikely to have been drawn from a population where the null hypothesis is true 2. If the p-value of the obtained test statistic is less than.05

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Failure to Reject the Null Hypothesis 1.Either: 1. Treatment had an effect, could not demonstrate it oror 2. Treatment had no effect

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Errors in Hypothesis Testing Actual State of Affairs BeliefDecision H 0 is True H 0 is False Reject H 0 Type I Error False Positive Correct Rejection 1 - Power H 0 is True Fail to Reject H 0 Correct Failure to Reject 1 - Type II Error False Negative

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Type I Error 1. Committed when H 0 is rejected as false although it is true

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Type II Error 1. Committed when H 0 is not rejected although it is false

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Statistical Power 1. Probability that the test will correctly reject a false null hypothesis

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Power -- Continued 3.When a treatment effect exists 1. A study may fail to discover it (Type II error, fail to reject a false null hypothesis) 2. A study may discover it (reject a false null hypothesis)

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Power -- Continued 4.Reducing alpha (.05 -->.01 -->.001) 1. Reduces power 2. Inverse relationship between Type I and Type II errors

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Power -- Continued 8. Some inferential statistical tests are more powerful

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Jury’s Decision Did Not Commit Crime Committed Crime Guilty Type I Error Convict Innocent Person Correct Verdict Convict Guilty Person Not Guilty Correct Acquittal Fail to Convict Innocent Person Type II Error Fail to Convict Guilty Person

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Level of Significance 1.Alpha: probability of committing a Type I error 1. Reject H 0 although it is true 2. Symbolized by

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Level of Significance 1.Obtained result attributed to: 1. Real effect (reject H 0 ) 2. Chance

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