Ego Defense Mechanisms Denial Acting out Repression Regression Reaction Formation Fantasy Isolation of affect Somatization Rationalization Intellectualization Identification Splitting Projection
Learning Theory Assumes a learner is essentially passive, responding to environmental stimuli. The learner starts off as a clean slate (i.e. tabula rasa) and behavior is shaped through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement Several types of learning exist. The most basic form is associative learning, i.e., making a new association between events in the environment.
Operant Conditioning (B. F. Skinner) Operant conditioning can be described as a process that attempts to modify behavior through the use of positive and negative reinforcement. Through operant conditioning, an individual makes an association between a particular behavior and a consequence Positive and negative reinforcers Positive and negative punishment