Learners with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders. Terminology IDEA uses the term emotionally disturbed. Behaviorally disordered is consistent with the.
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Terminology IDEA uses the term emotionally disturbed. Behaviorally disordered is consistent with the name of the Council for Children with Behavior Disorders (CCBD). –It focuses on the clearly observable aspect of these children’s problems – disordered behavior.
Definition Definitional Problems 1.Lack of precise definitions of mental health and normal behavior 2.Differences among conceptual models –Professionals are guided by their beliefs about why people behave the way the do and what we should do about it. 3.Difficulties Measuring Emotion and Behavior –Emotions and behavior are difficult to measure precisely and often require subjective judgment.
Definitional Problems Cont. 4. Relationships between ED/BD and other disabilities ED/BD tends to overlap with other disabilities, usually LD and MR 5. Differences in the professionals who diagnose and serve children and youth Each professional group has its own reasons for serving children with ED/BD. (clinical psychologists, school psychologists, social workers etc.)
Current Definitions ED/BD refers to –behavior that goes to the extreme –a problem that is chronic –behavior that is unacceptable because of social or cultural expectations
Federal Definition (i)The term means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked extent, which adversely affects educational performance. A.An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors; B.An inability to build or maintain satisfactory relationships with peers and teacher; C.Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances; D.A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; or E.A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. (ii)The term includes children who are schizophrenic. The term does not include children who are socially maladjusted unless it is determined that they are emotionally disturbed.
Federal Definition Some states have interpreted socially maladjusted as conduct disorder- aggressive, disruptive, antisocial behavior. A new definition has been proposed in 1990 by the National Mental Health and Special Education Coalition.
Advantages of the proposed definition over the federal definition: Terminology reflects current professional preferences Includes both disorders of emotions and disorders of behavior School-centered but acknowledges that disorders exhibited outside the school setting are also important Sensitive to ethnic and cultural differences Does not include minor or transient problems or ordinary responses to stress Acknowledges the importance of prereferral interventions Acknowledges that children can have multiple disabilities Includes full range of ED/BD
Classifications Externalizing- striking out against others Internalizing- mental or emotional conflicts, such as depression and anxiety Comorbidity – the co-occurrence of two or more conditions in the same individual Schizophrenia – a severe disorder of thinking; usually involves delusions, hallucinations, and psychotic episodes interspersed with periods of normal behavior
Prevalence Varies because there is no standard and reliable definition or screening instrument 6-10% of school age children exhibit serious emotional/behavioral problems Only 1% are identified as having ED/BD for special education purposes Externalizing is most common problem referred Boys outnumber girls in a 5 to 1 ratio
Causes Biological Factors Family Factors School Factors Cultural Factors
Identification Most common type-Conduct Disorder- attracts immediate attention Internalized problems less obvious Schizophrenia is obvious The younger the child, the harder to identify Walker feels teachers are accurate Over refer external and under refer internal
Identification-Screening 1.Teacher lists and ranks those with external and internal problems 2.Teacher completes two checklists- first, what behaviors in the last month, second, how often 3.Those who exhibit norms are observed by someone other than the teacher
Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics Intelligence and Achievement –Below normal IQ and achievement Social and Emotional Characteristics –Aggressive, acting out- may not respond well to punishment –Immature, withdrawn: Infantile behavior, isolated
Educational Considerations Contrasting Conceptual Models –Psychoeducational Life-space interviews –Understand that what they are doing is a problem –Recognize what motivates them –Observe consequences of their actions –Plan alternative ways to respond in the future –Behavioral The behavior is the problem Behavior is a function of environment Control the antecedent event or consequence to control the behavior
Educational Considerations Balancing Behavioral Control with Academic and Social Learning Importance of Integrated Services- problems exist at home, work, school, community Special Disciplinary Considerations: cause of misbehavior can be hard to determine
Strategies that Work Systematic data-based interventions Continuous assessment and monitoring of progress Provision to practice new skills Treatment matched to the problem Multicomponent treatment Programming for transfer and maintenance Commitment to sustained intervention
Service Delivery Models many go unidentified, only the most extreme- therefore, many are treated in regular classroom. Goal is to reintegrate those taught outside regular classroom Full continuum, of placements are available
Instructional Considerations These students fail to imitate good modeling of other students Incidental social learning does not take place Social skills training 1.Effective methods to teach basic academic skills needed 2.Social skills and affective experiences necessary
Functional Behavioral Assessment and Positive Behavioral Supports IDEA is unclear what Functional Behavioral Assessment is. –Is it assessment that is meaningful? –Is it a formal set of procedures? Positive Behavior Supports (PBS) includes positive teaching strategies in all areas Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)
Early Intervention Definition and identification in preschool children is difficult 1.Developmental tasks are much simpler so range of normal behavior is restricted 2.Variation in child rearing practices of good parents and expectancies in different cultures 3.Development is rapid and uneven 4.Most sever types of behavior appear in preschool but difficult to tell if it is the result of another condition such as MR Early intervention typically does not occur until extreme behaviors are exhibited.
Transition to Adulthood Regular class Consultant teacher Resource room Work-study job experience Special school Alternative schools Residential schools
Transition to Adulthood Incarcerated are underserved because they are identified as socially maladjusted Secondary ED youth are so varied making it difficult to develop a program Transition to world of work is difficult Transition to adulthood is complicated by neglectful, abusive or inadequate family relationships