2 Theories of Motivation Categories of Theories:Content theories of motivation seek to understand what underlies and drives motivationProcess theories of motivation seek to understand what steps can be taken to improve and maintain motivationTypes of Motivation:Intrinsic motivation- comes from the personal satisfaction of the work itselfExtrinsic motivation – comes from the rewards that are linked to job performance, such as a paychecks
3 Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Alderfer’s ERG Theory McCleland’s Need theoryHerzberg’s Two factor theory
4 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self ActualizationIf a lower order need is not met, the higher order need cannot be met..Esteem NeedsSocial NeedsSafety NeedsPhysiological Needs
5 Alderfer’s ERGGrowth: desires for continued psychological growth and developmentNo rigid hierarchy of needs.RealisticRelationships: desires for satisfying interpersonal relationshipsExistence: desires for physiological and material well-being
7 McClelland’s Theory Need for Achievement- drive to accomplish things Need for Affiliation- desire to be liked by othersNeed for Power- desire to control other people
8 Process Views Of Motivation Process theories of motivation seek to understand what steps can be taken to improve and maintain motivationGoal Setting TheoryEquity TheoryReinforcement TheoryExpectancy Theory
9 Goal-Setting Theory Effective Goals are: Accepted by employees Challenging and realisticSpecific, quantifiable, and measurableSMART
10 Management By objectives 3. Formally Evaluate Extent to Which Objectives Were Met or Exceeded2. Develop Action Plan to Accomplish Objectives1. Establish Mutually Agreed Objectives between Employee and Supervisor4. Monitor Progress toward Achievement of Objectives (Ongoing)
11 Fairness is achieved when the ratios are equivalent. Equity TheoryFairness is achieved when the ratios are equivalent.
12 Equity TheoryInequity occurs when the ratio is not equivalent and creates cognitive dissonanceTo restore equity, people may use one of the following:Reduce inputs by cutting back on the effort, and if the imbalance becomes too great, to leave the firmInfluence the outcome, such as persuade the boss for a raiseDecrease others’ outcomes, such as spread rumors about othersIncrease effort level if they think they are getting more than they deserveLeave the organization
13 Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation Expectancy: Link between effort and performance on a taskInstrumentality: Link between task performance and rewardsMotivation (M), expectancy (E), instrumentality (I), and valence (V) are related to one another in a multiplicative fashion:M = E x I x VIf either E, I, or V is low, motivation will be low
14 Reinforcement Theory Negative Reinforcement Extinction Punishment Positive ReinforcementApplyWithdrawContingencyPositiveNegativeNature of OutcomeBased on the law of effect.Link desirable outcomes to behaviors managers want to encourageReduce undesirable outcomes.