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Presentation on theme: "Motivation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Motivation

2 Theories of Motivation
Categories of Theories: Content theories of motivation seek to understand what underlies and drives motivation Process theories of motivation seek to understand what steps can be taken to improve and maintain motivation Types of Motivation: Intrinsic motivation- comes from the personal satisfaction of the work itself Extrinsic motivation – comes from the rewards that are linked to job performance, such as a paychecks

3 Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Alderfer’s ERG Theory
McCleland’s Need theory Herzberg’s Two factor theory

4 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Self Actualization If a lower order need is not met, the higher order need cannot be met.. Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs

5 Alderfer’s ERG Growth: desires for continued psychological growth and development No rigid hierarchy of needs. Realistic Relationships: desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships Existence: desires for physiological and material well-being

6 Herzberg’s Two Factors

7 McClelland’s Theory Need for Achievement- drive to accomplish things
Need for Affiliation- desire to be liked by others Need for Power- desire to control other people

8 Process Views Of Motivation
Process theories of motivation seek to understand what steps can be taken to improve and maintain motivation Goal Setting Theory Equity Theory Reinforcement Theory Expectancy Theory

9 Goal-Setting Theory Effective Goals are: Accepted by employees
Challenging and realistic Specific, quantifiable, and measurable SMART

10 Management By objectives
3. Formally Evaluate Extent to Which Objectives Were Met or Exceeded 2. Develop Action Plan to Accomplish Objectives 1. Establish Mutually Agreed Objectives between Employee and Supervisor 4. Monitor Progress toward Achievement of Objectives (Ongoing)

11 Fairness is achieved when the ratios are equivalent.
Equity Theory Fairness is achieved when the ratios are equivalent.

12 Equity Theory Inequity occurs when the ratio is not equivalent and creates cognitive dissonance To restore equity, people may use one of the following: Reduce inputs by cutting back on the effort, and if the imbalance becomes too great, to leave the firm Influence the outcome, such as persuade the boss for a raise Decrease others’ outcomes, such as spread rumors about others Increase effort level if they think they are getting more than they deserve Leave the organization

13 Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation
Expectancy: Link between effort and performance on a task Instrumentality: Link between task performance and rewards Motivation (M), expectancy (E), instrumentality (I), and valence (V) are related to one another in a multiplicative fashion: M = E x I x V If either E, I, or V is low, motivation will be low

14 Reinforcement Theory Negative Reinforcement Extinction Punishment
Positive Reinforcement Apply Withdraw Contingency Positive Negative Nature of Outcome Based on the law of effect. Link desirable outcomes to behaviors managers want to encourage Reduce undesirable outcomes.

15 Managerial Implications

16 Motivation by Design Job Enlargement Job Rotation Job Enrichment
Job Characteristics Model

17 Job Characteristics Model

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