Presentation on theme: "Biology, Self and Culture From Different Perspectives."— Presentation transcript:
Biology, Self and Culture From Different Perspectives
Culture is defined as “the values, beliefs, behaviour and material objects that constitute a people’s way of life”….
Biological determinism Biological determinism, also called genetic determinism, is the hypothesis that: Biological factors such as individual genes determine how a system behaves or changes over time.
BIOLOGICAL DETERMINISM CULTURE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GENDERS, RACES, ETHNICITIES and CLASSES … ARE…NATURAL (INEVITABLE)
BIOLOGICAL DETERMINISM SEES BIOLOGY AS DESTINY… Appeals to Nature ESSENTIALISM
THREE POINTS:BIOLOGY AS DESTINY… 1.GENES 2.DIFFERENCES 3.CONVERTS TO STATUSES
EARLY PSYCHOLOGY 19C SOCIO-BIOLOGY RACIST REDUCTIONIST
TWO `IS’ or Nature based theories STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM and PSYCHOANALTIC THEORY Accepts biology as destiny’ SEE T. PARSONS ON THE NUCLEAR FAMILY
Freud’s Theory biological Proposed the first social-scientific interpretation of emergence of the self: Id - the part of the self that demands immediate gratification Superego - personal conscience Ego - balances the conflicting needs of the id and the superego
Criticisms of Freud’s Theory 1.Relies on conjecture, socialization is more complex than Freud assumed. 2.Freud shows gender bias in his analysis of male and female sexuality. 3.Freud neglects socialization after childhood.
CONFLICT THEORY MARX AND ENGELS ENGELS ARGUED THE NUCLEAR FAMILY IS A SOCIETY CONSTRUCTION OF THE BOURGEOISIE WOMEN BECOME “SLAVES OF THE HOUSEHOLD”
Essay:“Origins of Family, Private Property and the State” …(Tucker, 1971)
FREDRICK ENGELS’ ENGELS MAKES FOUR KEY POINTS REGARDING PATRIARCHY AND PRIVATE PROPERTY
FREDRICK ENGELS PATRIARCHY AND CAPITALISM ENGELS AN EARLY FEMINIST
BIOLOGY AS IDEOLOGY: See R.C. LEWOTIN (1991) “Biology is at the foundation of SOCIETY & cultural patterns: …but, race and ethnic stratification are societal constructions
DIFFERENCES ACCORDING TO LEWONTIN 85 % is RANDOM VARIATION 8% is RACE 7% is Ethnicity
A CONTEMPORARY FEMINIST Naomi Wolf/ Marxist Feminist The Beauty Myth (1991) Two key stages in women’s history: 1.. SURGICAL AGE –19thc 2.COSMETIC Age =20thc
Self and Culture: SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM To G.H. Mead, without society… consciousness “ there could be no consciousness of self and no communication.”
SI VIEW OF CULTURE 1.SELF 2.SOCIETY 3.INDIVIDUAL are linked by signs, symbols and language
Symbolic Interactionism Key Concepts : 1.Looking Glass Self-C.H. Cooley 2.Social Self-G. H. Mead 3.Self as actor Goffman 4.Emergent self…. Blumer-.
What is culture? How do we know that culture is not derived from innate differences between groups?
SIX CULTURAL Elements : I. Symbols-anything the carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share the culture
2. Language The key to the world of culture- Systems of symbols that allows members of the society to communicate with one another
3. Values Culturally defined standards by which people assess desirability, goodness, beauty….
Beliefs- specific statements that people hold to be true… 1.General we believe that children should behave…(I.e people should practice safe sex….) 2. Situation specific- ie. an audience should clap when a musician is finished..
5. Socialization The process by which people learn their culture by: entering and disengaging from a succession of roles. becoming aware of themselves as they interact with others.
6. Role The behavior (or set of behaviors) expected of a person occupying a particular position in society.
SUMMARY BIOLOGY, SELF AND CULTURE ARE OBSERVED IN ALL THREE PARADIGMS STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM places more emphasis on biology in determining self and culture CONFLICT AND SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM ARE MORE CRITICAL