Presentation on theme: "FOCUS GROUPS DISCUSSION “a way of collecting qualitative data, which—essentially—involves engaging a small number of people in an informal group discussion."— Presentation transcript:
“a way of collecting qualitative data, which—essentially—involves engaging a small number of people in an informal group discussion ‘focused’ around a particular topic or set of issues” (Wilkinson, 2004, p. 177).
Focus groups are less threatening to many research participants, and this environment is helpful for participants to discuss perceptions, ideas, opinions, and thoughts (Krueger & Casey, 2000)
“A focus group is a data collection procedure in the form of a carefully planned group discussion among about ten people plus a moderator and observer, in order to obtain diverse ideas and perceptions on a topic of interest in a relaxed, permissive environment that fosters the expression of different points of view, with no pressure for consensus” (Focus Groups: Background and “How To” Guidelines, 1995).
focus group data were collected and analyzed mainly for market researchers to assess consumers’ attitudes and opinions.
Steps in Planning Focus Groups Select the Team Select the participants Decide on the time and location Invite the participants Prepare the focus group guide Record the discussion Taking after focus group: Summaries, analyse the summaries, write the report, translate result into actions, further information.
The Planning and Organization of the Focus Group last between 1 and 2 hours consist of between 6 and 12 participants Morgan (1997) has suggested overrecruiting by at least 20% of the total number of participants required, and Wilkinson (2004) suggested an overrecruitment rate of 50%. a focus group meets can vary from a single meeting to multiple meetings. Focus groups can be formed by sampling
focus group team a moderator facilitating the discussion, prompting members to speak, taking notes that inform potential emergent questions to ask. presents the focus group participants with a series of questions. present the members with stimulus material, and ask them to respond to it. engage in a specific activity (brainstorming exercise)
focus group team an assistant moderator. recording the session (i.e., whether by audio- or videotape), taking notes, creating an environment that is conducive for group discussion (e.g., dealing with latecomers, being sure everyone has a seat, arranging for refreshments), providing verification of data, and helping the researcher/moderator to analyze and/or interpret the focus group data
Sources of Focus Group Data use only the actual text (i.e., what each of the participants stated during the focus group) in their analyses. Multiple types: audiotapes of the participants from the focus groups, notes taken by the moderator and assistant moderator, and items recalled by the moderator and assistant moderator
focus group Data analysis Transcript-based analysis (rigorous and time- intensive mode of analyzing data): transcription of videotapes and/or audiotapes, result in 50 to 70 pages of text per focus group meeting. Audiotape and/or videotape is used primarily to verify quotations, then be analyzed alongside field notes constructed by the moderator and assistant moderator and any notes extracted from the debriefing of one or more members of the debriefing team.
tape-based analysis: listens to the tape and creates an abridged (reduced) transcript. focus on the research question and only transcribe the portions that assist in better understanding of the phenomenon of interest. Note-based analysis: analysis of notes from the focus group, the debriefing session, and any summary comments from the moderator or assistant moderator. Memory-based analysis: least rigorous, moderator recalling the events presenting these to the stakeholders
analysis focus group researchers use the group as the unit of analysis the researchers code the data and present emergent themes, themes can yield important and interesting information (the emergent themes provide no information about the degree of consensus and dissent),
Analyzing Focus Group Data Qualitative Analysis Techniques Constant comparison analysis. Classical content analysis. Keywords-in-context Discourse analysis Micro-interlocutor Analysis: Matrix for assessing level of consensus in focus group Matrix for documenting proxemic, chronemic, kinesic, and paralinguistic information Venn diagram representation, Response patterns
Conversation analysis justifiable for focus groups, it is primarily through interaction that people build social context, how people talk before they try to categorize what participants say about it within educational settings -should examine interactions, how individuals communicate with each other where focus group members might modify their communication styles depending on the audience, appropriateness of participating, perceived correct responses expected of them.