2 Chapter OutlineResearch Design ClassificationExploratory ResearchDescriptive ResearchCausal ResearchPotential Sources of ErrorMarketing Research Proposal
3 1) Research Design: Definition A research design is a framework or blueprint for conducting the marketing research project. It details the procedures necessary for obtaining the information needed to structure or solve marketing research problems.
4 The Problem Definition Process (again) Fig. 2.1DiscussionwithDecision Maker(s)InterviewsExpertsSecondaryDataAnalysisQualitativeResearchManagement Decision ProblemMarketing Research ProblemTasks InvolvedEnvironmental Context of the ProblemStep I: Problem DefinitionStep II: Approach to the ProblemObjective/TheoreticalFoundationsQuestionsHypothesesStep III: Research DesignAnalytical Model: Verbal, Graphical, MathematicalSpecificationofInformationNeeded
5 1) Components of a Research Design Define the information needed (Chapter 2)Design the exploratory, descriptive, and/or causal phases of the research (Chapters 3 - 7)Specify the measurement and scaling procedures (Chapters 8 and 9)Construct and pretest a questionnaire (interviewing form) or an appropriate form for data collection (Chapter 10)Specify the sampling process and sample size (Chapters 11 and 12)Develop a plan of data analysis (Chapter 14)
6 1) A Classification of Marketing Research Designs Single Cross-Sectional DesignMultiple Cross-Sectional DesignResearch DesignConclusive Research DesignExploratory Research DesignDescriptive ResearchCausal ResearchCross-Sectional DesignLongitudinal Design
7 1) Exploratory & Conclusive Research Differences Objective:Character-istics:Findings/ Results:Outcome:To provide insights and understandingInformation needed is defined only loosely.Research process is flexible and unstructured.Sample is small and non-representative.Analysis of primary data is qualitative.Hypotheses may not exist.TentativeGenerally followed by further exploratory or conclusive researchTo test specific hypotheses and examine relationshipsInformation needed is clearly defined.Research process is formal and structured.Sample is large and representative.Data analysis is quantitativeConclusiveFindings used as input into decision makingExploratory
8 1) A Comparison of Basic Research Designs ConclusiveObjective:Characteristics:Methods:Discovery of ideas and insightsFlexible, versatileOften the front end of total research designExpert surveysPilot surveysCase studiesQualitative & quantitative secondary dataDescribe market characteristics or functionsMarked by the prior formulation of specific hypothesesPreplanned and structured designQuantitative secondary dataSurveysPanelsObservation and other dataDetermine cause and effect relationshipsManipulation of independent variables, effect on dependent variablesControl mediating variablesExperimentsExploratoryDescriptiveCausal
9 2) Uses of Exploratory Research Exploratory research can be used to:Formulate a problem or define a problem more preciselyDevelop hypothesesEstablish approach and priorities for further researchExploratory methods discussed in chapters 2-5.
10 3) Use of Descriptive Research Descriptive research can be used to:describe the characteristics of relevant consumersdetermine the perceptions of product characteristicsmake specific predictionsDescriptive research can be further classified into cross-sectional and longitudinal research…
11 3) Cross-Sectional Designs Cross-sectional designs involve the collection of information from any given sample of population elements only onceSingle cross-sectional designsone sample of respondentsinformation is obtained from this sample only onceMultiple cross-sectional designstwo or more samples of respondentsinformation from each sample is obtained only onceOften, information from different samples is obtained at different timesCohort analysis consists of a series of surveys conducted at appropriate time intervals, where the cohort serves as the basic unit of analysis. A cohort is a group of respondents who experience the same event within the same time interval.
12 3) Example of Cohort Analysis Cohorts (in this example) = income level groups
13 3) Longitudinal Designs A longitudinal design involves a fixed sample (or samples) of population elements that is measured repeatedly on the same variables.A longitudinal design differs from a multiple cross-sectional design in that the sample(s) remain the same over time.A panel is a sample of respondents who have agreed to provide information at specified intervals over an extended period.
14 3) Cross-Sectional vs. Longitudinal Figure 3.6 Cross Sectional vs. Longitudinal DesignsSample(s) Surveyed at T1Sample Surveyed at T1Same Sample also Surveyed at T2Time1Time2Cross- Sectional DesignLongitudinal DesignTime
15 3) Advantages and Disadvantages of Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Designs Evaluation CriteriaCross-Sectional DesignLongitudinal DesignDetecting ChangeAccuracy*Representative SamplingAvoid response bias-+*Panels (in longitudinal designs) may not be representative as they may refuse to cooperate or drop out.
16 4) Causal ResearchCausal research: a type of conclusive research where the major objective is to obtain evidence regarding cause-and-effect (causal) relationships.Cause = independent variable(s)Effect = dependent variable(s)METHOD: Experiments
17 5) Potential Sources of Error in Research Designs Surrogate Information ErrorMeasurement ErrorPopulation Definition ErrorSampling Frame ErrorData Analysis ErrorRespondent Selection ErrorQuestioning ErrorRecording ErrorCheating ErrorInability ErrorUnwillingness ErrorTotal ErrorNon-sampling ErrorRandom Sampling ErrorNon-response ErrorResponse ErrorInterviewer ErrorRespondent ErrorResearcher Error
18 Errors in Marketing Research The total error includes:Random sampling error is the difference between the true mean value for the population and the true mean value for the original sample.Non-sampling errors can be attributed to sources other than sampling, and they may be random or nonrandom:Non-response/response error,Poor problem definition,Wrong research approach,Unbalanced scales, and so on…
19 Errors in Marketing Research Non-response error arises when some of the respondents included in the sample do not respond.Response error arises when respondents give inaccurate answers or their answers are misrecorded or misanalyzed.