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Chapter 2: Force and Newton’s Laws

Section 1 Newton’s First Law
Force – push or pull on an object The combination of all the forces acting on an object is the net force

When forces are balanced forces, they cancel each other out and do not change an object’s motion; when forces are unbalanced forces, the motion of an object changes.

Newton’s first law of motion – an object will remain at rest or move with constant speed unless a force is applied

Friction is a force that resists sliding between two touching surfaces or through air or water
Friction slows down an object’s motion Static friction – the type of friction that prevents an object from moving when a force is applied Sliding friction is due to the microscopic roughness of two surfaces; it slows down a sliding object Rolling friction between the ground and a wheel allows the wheel to roll

Write down where is friction is at work

Section 2 Newton’s second Law
Newton’s second law of motion connects force, acceleration, and mass; it explains that an object acted upon by a force will accelerate in the direction of the force; acceleration equals net force divided by mass. Acceleration = net force / mass

Units of Force Measured in newtons (N)
Equal to mass x acceleration (kg x m/s2)

Gravity – attractive force between two objects; depends on the mass of the objects and distance between them; gravitational force is also called weight. Weight: F= ma = m x (9.8 m/s2) *your weight is the gravitational force between you and the Earth Mass and weight are different!

The second law explains how to calculate the acceleration of an object if its mass and the forces acting on it are both known Acceleration = net force / mass = N/kg = (kg x m/s2 )/kg = m/s2

In circular motion, the centripetal force is always perpendicular to the motion
What does perpendicular mean?

Terminal velocity is reached when the force of gravity is balanced by air resistance; the size of the air resistance force depends on the shape of an object and its speed Air resistance = air pushing against an object’s motion A form of friction The force of air resistance pushing up on the object is increasing as the object moves faster

An object can speed up, slow down, or turn in the direction of the net force when unbalanced forces act on it Speeding Up – force in same direction as motion Slowing Down – force in opposite direction as motion Turning- force at an angle to direction of motion

Section 3 Newton’s Third Law
Newton’s third law of motion states that forces always act in equal but opposite pairs; for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction Action-reaction forces are always the same size but are in opposite directions and act on different objects.

When the mass of one object is considerably larger than the mass of another object, the action-reaction force is not noticeable Air and water exert action-reaction forces with objects such as hands or canoe paddles A rocket launches due to the equal but opposite forces of the burning fuel.

Weightlessness The condition that occurs in free fall when the weight of an object seems to be zero Free fall = when the only force acting on a falling object is gravity With no force pushing up on you, you have no sensation of weight

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