2 The PassiveWe form the passive by using the verb to be followed by the past participle:ACTIVE – The police officer saw the robber at the airport.PASSIVE – The robber was seen at the airport
3 THE PASSIVE We use the passive when: We don’t know who or what did somethingMy bicycle has been stolen.The action is more important than who did itIncome tax was introduced in England in 1798It’s obvious who or what did somethingThe thief has been arrested
4 The passiveWe can use by + person/thing to show who does the action if this information is important:The robber was seen by the police officer.
5 The passive – Verbs with two objects Sometimes an active verb has two objects:A witness gave the police some information.Either object can be the subject of the passive sentence:Some information was given to the police.The police was given some information.
6 CAUSATIVE HAVEWhen we ask someone to do something for us we use the structure TO HAVE SOMETHING DONE. It is not usually necessary to say who did it:I had my hair cut.I’m having my kitchen painted.They want to have their car repaired.In informal English we can use GET instead of HAVE.
7 THE PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE TO CATCH TO HAVE CAUGHT CATCHING HAVING CAUGHTAM/ARE/IS CATCHINGCATCH(ES)WILL CATCHAM/ARE/IS GOING TO CATCHTO BE CAUGHTTO HAVE BEEN CAUGHTBEING CAUGHTHAVING BEEN CAUGHTAM/ARE/IS BEING CAUGHTAM/ARE/IS CAUGHTWILL BE CAUGHTAM/ARE/IS GOING TO BE CAUGHT
8 THE PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE HAS/HAVE CAUGHT CAUGHT WAS CATCHING HAD CAUGHTWOULD CATCHWOULD HAVE CAUGHTHAS/HAVE BEEN CAUGHTWAS/WERE CAUGHTWAS BEING CAUGHTHAD BEEN CAUGHTWOULD BE CAUGHTWOULD HAVE BEEN CAUGHT