Why is population increasing at different rates in different countries?
Stage 1: Low Growth High CBR and CDR but nearly the same Hunting and gathering Around 8000 BC the world’s population began growing more rapidly – Agricultural Revolution Most of human history has been spent at stage 1, but no country remains there today.
Stage 2: High Growth CDR plummets while CBR remains high – NIR is high 1750-1800: Industrial Revolution (Europe and US) 1950s:Medical Revolution (Latin America, Asia and Africa)
Stage 3: Moderate Growth CBR drops sharply, CDR is still dropping but not as rapidly – Population is still growing but not as rapidly Europe and North America: 1900-1950 Asia and Latin America: recently Most African nations are still in stage 2 CBR drops because of changes in social customs – People chose to have fewer children More confident that children will survive to adulthood Economic changes, more urban
Stage 4: Low Growth CBR declines to a point that it equals the CDR – zero population growth (ZPG) Countries in stage 4 can be seen in the TFR map Social customs can also explain stage 4 – More women in the workforce – Changes in lifestyle: birth control, increased income and leisure time Negative Population Growth
Demographic Transition in England Fig. 2-14: England was one of the first countries to experience rapid population growth in the mid-eighteenth century, when it entered stage 2 of the demographic transition.
Population Pyramids in U.S. Cities Fig. 2-16: Population pyramids can vary greatly, with different fertility rates (Laredo vs. Honolulu), or among military bases (Unalaska), college towns (Lawrence), and retirement communities (Naples).
Rapid Growth in Cape Verde Fig. 2-17: Cape Verde, which entered stage 2 of the demographic transition in about 1950, is experiencing rapid population growth. Its population history reflects the impacts of famines and out-migration.
Moderate Growth in Chile Fig. 2-18: Chile entered stage 2 of the demographic transition in the 1930s, and it entered stage 3 in the 1960s.
Low Growth in Denmark Fig. 2-19: Denmark has been in stage 4 of the demographic transition since the 1970s, with little population growth since then. Its population pyramid shows increasing numbers of elderly and few children.