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Chapter 5: INTEGRAL CALCULUS In Chapter 2 we used the tangent and velocity problems to introduce the derivative, which is the central idea in differential calculus. In much the same way, this chapter starts with the area and distance problems and uses them to formulate the idea of a definite integral, which is the basic concept of integral calculus. There is a connection between integral calculus and differential calculus. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus relates the integral to the derivative, and we will see in this chapter that it greatly simplifies the solution of many problems.

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The Area Problem Find the area of the following region:

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The Definite Integral

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Evaluating Integrals

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Properties of the Definite Integral 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6:

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7:

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8: 9: 10: 11:

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12:

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The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus is appropriately named because it establishes a connection between the two branches of calculus: differential calculus and integral calculus. Differential calculus arose from the tangent problem, whereas integral calculus arose from a seemingly unrelated problem, the area problem. Newton’s teacher at Cambridge, Isaac Barrow (1630–1677), discovered that these two problems are actually closely related. In fact, he realized that differentiation and integration are inverse processes. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus gives the precise inverse relationship between the derivative and the integral. It was Newton and Leibniz who exploited this relationship and used it to develop calculus into a systematic mathematical method. In particular, they saw that the Fundamental Theorem enabled them to compute areas and integrals very easily without having to compute them as limits of sums

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Differentiation and Integration as Inverse Processes

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The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus is unquestionably the most important theorem in calculus and, indeed, it ranks as one of the great accomplishments of the human mind. Before it was discovered, from the time of Eudoxus and Archimedes to the time of Galileo and Fermat, problems of finding areas, volumes, and lengths of curves were so difficult that only a genius could meet the challenge. But now, armed with the systematic method that Newton and Leibniz fashioned out of the Fundamental Theorem, we will see in the chapters to come that these challenging problems are accessible to all of us. Importance of The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

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Indefinite Integrals or Antiderivatives You should distinguish carefully between definite and indefinite integrals. A definite integral is a number, whereas an indefinite integral is a function (or family of functions).

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Table of Indefinite Integrals

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Applications of The Net Change Theorem The Net Change Theorem: The integral of a rate of change is the net change: :

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Substitution Rule The Substitution Rule

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Symmetry in Definite Integral Integrals of Symmetric Functions

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The Logarithm Defined as an Integral

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Laws of Logarithms Definition: The general logarithmic function with base is the function defined by

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The Exponential Function

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Definition:

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