2 Learning ObjectivesUnderstand the operation of a single phase two pole AC generator.Describe the operation of a simple AC generator.Identify and define the components of a three phase two pole AC generator to include rotor, stator, armature. field windings, slip rings and brushes.Understand the effects of applying a DC voltage power supply to a two pole rotor's field windings via brushes and slip rings.Understand the induced effects that result from rotating the rotor's electromagnetic field past the armatures (Faraday's Law).Given the armature coil sequence and their physical location, plot the induced AC voltages for a three phase two pole AC generator as a function of time and as phasors.Understand the relationship between the number of poles and rpm of the rotor to the induced AC current's frequency.
3 Producing Electricity A generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.Motors and generators perform exactly the opposite functionHowever, motors and generator are essentially the same device
4 Advantages of AC Power Motors Voltage Transformation AC induction motors could be made more powerfulVoltage TransformationAC transformers allowed efficient changing of voltage to enable power transmissionPower TransmissionAC power can be transmitted hundreds of milesDC transmission limited to ~1 mile
5 Motor to Generator: Rotating DC Armature current (I) produces force (F) in the armature causing rotation.What if we remove the voltage source (VT) and we provided the torque?Equivalent circuit representation
6 Motor to Generator: Rotating DC What if we remove the voltage source (VT) and we provided the torque?
7 Basic Single-Phase AC Generator Turning the armature results in induced emf (eAA ) across the load (Faraday’s Law). REMEMBER LAST LAB.The voltage eAA will be single phase AC giveneAA = Vm sin t [V, volts]What determines ? Rotor
8 Three-Phase AC Generator What if we added two additional armature coils?Single PhaseThree Phase
9 Three-Phase AC Generator Voltages as a function of time
11 Phase sequenceThe phase sequence is the time order in which the voltages pass through their respective maximum values.Phase sequence is important because it determines the direction of rotation of a connected motor.
12 Positive phase sequence (ABC) The ABC sequence or positive sequence.
13 Example Problem 1Plot the three phase voltages in the phasor and time domain if the generator was spun the opposite direction (start with phase A as the reference).What are the equations?
14 Negative phase sequence (ACB) The ACB or negative sequence is produced when the generator rotates clockwise.
15 Negative phase sequence (ACB) The ACB or negative sequence is produced when the generator rotates clockwise.
16 Large AC generatorUnlike our generator model with a fixed magnetic field and rotating armature, it is more practical to fix the armature windings and rotate the magnetic field on large generators.Brushes and slip rings pass EXCITATION voltage to the field windings on the rotor to create the magnetic fieldMinimizes current flow through brushes to rotor windings
17 Generator Stator Stator is slotted with integer multiple of 6 slots. Three pairs of slots contain identical coils of wire, each with NS turns.These windings are called the armature.
18 Generator RotorRotor contains rotating electromagnet called the field winding.The electromagnet is powered by a DC current via slip rings and brushes.Unlike in the DC motor application, brushes are not commutating and are not as subject to wear (less frictions).
19 Slip RingsAllow DC current to flow to the field windings on the rotor to produce the magnetic field
20 Generator OutputThe amplitude of voltage output is a function of the current supplied to the field windings.The stronger the current, the larger the magnetic field, the larger the output voltage
21 Generator FrequencyThe frequency f (in Hz) of the AC voltage is a function of speed of the rotor N (in RPM)N = 60 f [RPM]If the rotor contains multiple number of even poles (2, 4, 6, etc.) then
22 Synchronous SpeedSynchronous Speed (speed of rotation of B) versus Poles for a 60Hz MachineP (poles)246810N (RPM)360018001200900720
23 Example Problem 2For a 4 pole, 60 HZ generator, what is the speed in rpm of the rotor? rpmWhat would be the frequency of a 6 pole machine spinning at the same rpm? 90 Hz