 # Lesson 33 AC Generators.

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Lesson 33 AC Generators

Learning Objectives Understand the operation of a single phase two pole AC generator. Describe the operation of a simple AC generator. Identify and define the components of a three phase two pole AC generator to include rotor, stator, armature. field windings, slip rings and brushes. Understand the effects of applying a DC voltage power supply to a two pole rotor's field windings via brushes and slip rings. Understand the induced effects that result from rotating the rotor's electromagnetic field past the armatures (Faraday's Law). Given the armature coil sequence and their physical location, plot the induced AC voltages for a three phase two pole AC generator as a function of time and as phasors. Understand the relationship between the number of poles and rpm of the rotor to the induced AC current's frequency.

Producing Electricity
A generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Motors and generators perform exactly the opposite function However, motors and generator are essentially the same device

Advantages of AC Power Motors Voltage Transformation
AC induction motors could be made more powerful Voltage Transformation AC transformers allowed efficient changing of voltage to enable power transmission Power Transmission AC power can be transmitted hundreds of miles DC transmission limited to ~1 mile

Motor to Generator: Rotating DC
Armature current (I) produces force (F) in the armature causing rotation. What if we remove the voltage source (VT) and we provided the torque? Equivalent circuit representation

Motor to Generator: Rotating DC
What if we remove the voltage source (VT) and we provided the torque?

Basic Single-Phase AC Generator
Turning the armature results in induced emf (eAA ) across the load (Faraday’s Law). REMEMBER LAST LAB. The voltage eAA will be single phase AC given eAA = Vm sin t [V, volts] What determines ?  Rotor

Three-Phase AC Generator
What if we added two additional armature coils? Single Phase Three Phase

Three-Phase AC Generator
Voltages as a function of time

Three-Phase AC Generator
Phasor representation

Phase sequence The phase sequence is the time order in which the voltages pass through their respective maximum values. Phase sequence is important because it determines the direction of rotation of a connected motor.

Positive phase sequence (ABC)
The ABC sequence or positive sequence.

Example Problem 1 Plot the three phase voltages in the phasor and time domain if the generator was spun the opposite direction (start with phase A as the reference). What are the equations?

Negative phase sequence (ACB)
The ACB or negative sequence is produced when the generator rotates clockwise.

Negative phase sequence (ACB)
The ACB or negative sequence is produced when the generator rotates clockwise.

Large AC generator Unlike our generator model with a fixed magnetic field and rotating armature, it is more practical to fix the armature windings and rotate the magnetic field on large generators. Brushes and slip rings pass EXCITATION voltage to the field windings on the rotor to create the magnetic field Minimizes current flow through brushes to rotor windings

Generator Stator Stator is slotted with integer multiple of 6 slots.
Three pairs of slots contain identical coils of wire, each with NS turns. These windings are called the armature.

Generator Rotor Rotor contains rotating electromagnet called the field winding. The electromagnet is powered by a DC current via slip rings and brushes. Unlike in the DC motor application, brushes are not commutating and are not as subject to wear (less frictions).

Slip Rings Allow DC current to flow to the field windings on the rotor to produce the magnetic field

Generator Output The amplitude of voltage output is a function of the current supplied to the field windings. The stronger the current, the larger the magnetic field, the larger the output voltage

Generator Frequency The frequency f (in Hz) of the AC voltage is a function of speed of the rotor N (in RPM) N = 60 f [RPM] If the rotor contains multiple number of even poles (2, 4, 6, etc.) then

Synchronous Speed Synchronous Speed (speed of rotation of B) versus Poles for a 60Hz Machine P (poles) 2 4 6 8 10 N (RPM) 3600 1800 1200 900 720

Example Problem 2 For a 4 pole, 60 HZ generator, what is the speed in rpm of the rotor? rpm What would be the frequency of a 6 pole machine spinning at the same rpm? 90 Hz