Presentation on theme: "Learning Objectives Discuss the internationalization of business."— Presentation transcript:
0 International Business Finance Chapter 16International Business Finance
1 Learning Objectives Discuss the internationalization of business. Explain why foreign exchange rates in two different countries must be in line with each other.Discuss the concept of interest-rate parity.Explain the purchasing-power parity theory and the law of one price.Discuss the risk that are unique to the capital-budgeting analysis of direct foreign investment.
2 THE GLOBALIZATION OF PRODUCT AND FINANCIAL MARKETS
3 The Globalization of Product and Financial Markets Direct Foreign Investment (DFI) occurs when a company from one country makes a physical investment, such building a manufacturing facility, in another country. A major reason for increase in DFI by U.S. companies is the high rate of return available in other countries.Capital flows (Portfolio Investment) between countries has also been increasing and is motivated by the possibility of obtaining higher returns and/or reducing portfolio risk through international diversification.
4 FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKETS AND CURRENCY EXCHANGE RATES
5 The Foreign Exchange Market The foreign exchange (FX) market is by far the world’s largest financial market, with daily trading volumes of more than $4 trillion.Trading in this market is dominated by few key currencies including the U.S. dollar, the British pound sterling, the Japanese yen, and the euro.
6 The Foreign Exchange Market The foreign exchange market is an over-the-counter market with participants (buyers and sellers) located in major commercial and investment banks around the world.
8 Foreign Exchange Market Some of the major participants in foreign exchange trading include:Importers and exporters of goods and servicesInvestors and portfolio managers who purchase foreign stocks and bondsCurrency traders who make a market in one or more foreign currencies
9 Foreign Exchange Rates The price of one currency stated in terms of another.For example, if the exchange rate of U.S. dollars for euro is 1.37 to 1, this means that it would take $1.37 to purchase one euro.
12 Foreign Exchange Rates A country’s relative economic strengths, trade balance, level of monetary activity, and balance of payments (BOP) are important determinants of exchange rates.Short-term day-to-day fluctuations in exchange rates are caused by changing supply and demand conditions in the foreign exchange market.
13 Direct and Indirect Quote Indicates the number of units of the home currency required to buy one unit of the foreign currencyExample: dollars per British poundIndirect QuoteIndicates the number of units of a foreign currency that can be bought for one unit of the home currency. It is the reciprocal of direct quote.Example: 1/ = pounds per dollar
14 Exchange Rates and Arbitrage Foreign exchange quotes in two different countries must be in line with each other.If the exchange rates are out of line, then a trader could make a profit by buying in the market where the currency was cheaper and selling it in the other.The process of buying and selling in more than one market to make a riskless profit is called arbitrage. Such opportunities do not exist for a long time due to arbitrage process.
15 Asked and Bid RatesBid: Rate at which bank buys foreign currency from a customerAsk: Rate at which bank sells foreign currency to a customerThe difference between the asked quote and the bid quote is known as bid-asked spread.
16 Cross RatesA cross rate is the exchange rate between two foreign currencies, neither of which is the currency of the domestic country.
17 Spot Exchange RateExchange rates and transactions meant for immediate delivery are called spot exchange rates.
18 Forward RateA forward exchange contract requires delivery, at a specified future date, of one currency for a specified amount of another currency.The exchange rate for the future is agreed today and is known as the forward rate. The actual payment of one currency and receipt of another currency take place on a future date called the delivery date.
19 Forward Contract Example Forward contracts are usually quoted for periods of 30, 90, and 180 days.If the 30-day forward quote for euros is $1.30, it means that the bank is contractually bound to deliver a euro at $1.30 and the customer is bound to buy a euro at $1.30, regardless of the actual spot rate.
20 Exchange Rate RiskThe risk that tomorrow’s exchange rate will differ from today’s rate.Exchange rate risk affects:international trade contractsforeign portfolio investmentsdirect foreign investment
21 Exchange Rate Risk in International Trade Contracts Example: You are expecting to receive 1m euros next year from exports.The future value of euros in dollars is uncertain and depends on future exchange rate.If euro = $1.25, you will receive $1.25m, but if the euro depreciates to $0.90, your contract is worth only $0.9m.
22 Exchange Rate Risk in Foreign Portfolio Investments The future return on portfolio is unknown as investments in securities is a risky investment. Thus, investing in euro market securities could yield –5% or +10%. In addition, investor is exposed to U.S. $/euro exchange rate fluctuation.Thus, if the euro investment yields 10% but the euro depreciates during the period, the net return will be less than 10%, depending on the extent of euro depreciation.
23 Exchange Rate Risk in Direct Foreign Investment In a DFI, parent company invests in assets denominated in foreign currency. The U.S.-based parent company receives the repatriated (or converted) profit stream from the subsidiary in dollars.Thus, exchange rate risk arises due to:Fluctuations in the dollar value of the assets located abroadFluctuations in the home currency-denominated profit streamPossible effect on future profit stream
25 Interest Rate ParityIRP theory can be used to relate differences in the interest rates in two countries to the ratio of spot and forward exchange rates of the two countries’ currencies. The IRP condition can be stated as follows:
26 PURCHASING-POWER PARITY AND THE LAW OF ONE PRICE
27 Purchasing-Power Parity Theory (PPP) According to PPP, exchange rates adjust so that identical goods cost the same amount regardless of where in the world they were purchased.For example, if an Apple iPad costs $399 in the U.S. and € in France, according to PPP, the spot exchange rate should be $1.25 per euro ($399/€319.20). Thus, an iPad will cost the same whether it is bought in the U.S. or France.
28 Law of One PriceThe law one price implies that the same goods should sell for the same price in different countries after making adjustment for the exchange rate between the two currencies.Thus, if a Big Mac costs $2 in U.S. dollars and the exchange rate with the British pound is 1 pound = $2, a Big Mac should cost 1 pound in the UK.
29 The International Fisher Effect International Fisher Effect states that the real interest rate should be the same all over the world, with the differences in nominal rate resulting from differences in expected inflation rates.Thus, investing in a foreign bank with the highest interest rate may simply mean investing in a country with the highest rate of inflation.
31 CAPITAL BUDGETING FOR DIRECT FOREIGN INVESTMENT
32 Capital Budgeting for DFI The method used by multinational corporations to evaluate foreign investments is very similar to the method used to evaluate domestic investments.Since there might be repatriation restrictions, evaluations of these investments must focus on after-tax cash flows that can be repatriated. Firms may be subject to taxes in both the home country and foreign country.
33 Foreign Investment Risks The decision process for DFI is similar to capital budgeting decisions in the domestic context.Risks in domestic capital budgeting arises from two sources: business risk and financial risk.In international capital budgeting problem, we also have to incorporate political risk and exchange rate risk.
34 Political RiskPolitical risk arises because the foreign subsidiary conducts business in a political system different from that of the home country.Some examples of such risk include:Expropriation of assets without compensationNonconvertibility of the subsidiary’s foreign earnings into the parent’s currencyChanges in the laws governing taxationRestrictions on sale price, wage rates, local borrowing, extent of local ownership, hiring of personnel, transfer payments made to the parent
35 Exchange Rate RiskAs observed before, exchange rate risks can have significant effect on cash flows and earnings.