2 Greek Mythology & Religion Based on POLYTHEISTIC religionOffered explanations of NATURAL phenomenon, HUMAN qualities, and life eventsSymbols and Images used in Western Literature, Art, and Architecture
3 Importance of the Persian Wars B.C.EPersians Wars united ATHENS and SPARTA against the PersiansAthenian victory at Marathon & Salamis gave Greeks control of Aegean SeaAthens preserved its independence and continued innovations in government and culture
4 Importance of the Peloponnesian War B.C.ECaused in part by competition for control of the Greek worldAthens (Delian League) vs Sparta (Peloponnesian League)Resulted in the slowing of cultural advance and the weakening of political power.
5 Golden Age of Athens (Pericles) Extended DemocracyRebuilt and Beautified Athens after Persian WarsOne example was the ParthenonDesigned by the sculptor Phidias
6 Greek Contributions to Western Civilization Drama: Aeschylus and SophoclesPoetry: Homer (Illiad and Odyssey)History: Herodotus & ThucydidesSculpture: PhidiasArchitecture: Columns (3 types)Science: Archimedes & HippocratesMathematics: Euclid & PythagorasPhilosophy: Socrates, Plato, & Aristotle
8 Macedonia and Hellenistic Culture Phillip II, King of Macedonia conquered most of GREECEHis son, ALEXANDER THE GREAT, established an empire that stretched from EGYPT to the edge of INDIAHELLENISTIC Culture: Blending of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian Cultures by AlexanderSpread of Hellenistic Culture through Trade
9 Roman Mythology & Religion Based on POLYTHEISTIC religionOffered explanations of NATURAL phenomenon, HUMAN qualities, and life eventsSymbols and Images used in Western Literature, Art, and Architecture
10 Punic Wars: Rome vs. Carthage 264to 146 B.C.E.War revolved around competition for tradeThree wars resulted in Roman victory, Destruction of Carthage, extended trade & wealth of RomeDuring the 2nd Punic War, Hannibal invaded Roman Peninsula and was defeated by Scipio who attacked Carthage.
11 Roman Empire in the Punic Wars Rome after 1st Punic WarRome after 2nd Punic WarRome after 3rd Punic War
12 Evolution of an Empire and Spread of Roman Culture Rome included all of the Mediterranean Basin (Africa, Asia, Europe, & Hellenistic World of the Eastern MediterraneanWestern Europe(Gaul, British Isles)
13 Decline of the Republic & The Rise of an Empire Origin & Evolution of the Roman EmpireSpread of Slavery in the Agricultural System Migration of small farmers into the cities (unemployment) Civil War over the power of Julius Caesar Inflation (value of currency goes down, costs of good go up)First Triumvirate (Caesar, Crassus, & Pompey) Julius Caesar: Seizing power, Dictator for Life, Assassination in the Senate Augustus Caesar (Octavian) Civil War, Defeated Marc Antony, 1st Emperor Failure to provide peaceful succession of leaders
14 Origins & Beliefs of Christianity Origins of christianityBeliefs of christianityHad its roots in JudaismWas led by Jesus of NazarethJesus was proclaimed the Messiah: Son of GodConflicted with the polytheistic beliefs of the Roman EmpireMonotheisticJesus was seen as both the son and incarnation of GodLife after DeathNew Testament of the Bible contains accounts of Jesus’ life and teachings
15 Spread of Christianity Message was popular with common peopleEarly martyrs inspired each otherCarried by apostles (disciples) throughout the Roman EmpirePaul, a Roman Citizen, traveled across the empire using the road system created by the Romans spreading Christianity.
16 Christianity and the Late Roman Empire Constantine converted to Christianity & made it legal to practiceTheodosius made Christianity the official religion of RomeThe Church became a source of moral authorityLoyalty to the church was more important that loyalty to the EmperorMain Unifying force in Western Europe after the fall of Rome.
17 Contributions of Ancient Rome Art and Architecture: Pantheon, Colesseum, & the ForumTechnology: Roads, Aqueducts, ArchesScience: PtolemyMedicine: Emphasis on Public HealthLanguage: Latin & influence on Romance LanguagesLiterature: Virgil’s AeneidReligion: Mythology & then ChristianityLaw: “Innocent until proven guilty”
18 Roman ForumPantheonAqueductsColosseumRoman Arches