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Presentation on theme: "CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS"— Presentation transcript:

Reporting Category 2

2 Greek Mythology & Religion
Based on POLYTHEISTIC religion Offered explanations of NATURAL phenomenon, HUMAN qualities, and life events Symbols and Images used in Western Literature, Art, and Architecture

3 Importance of the Persian Wars
B.C.E Persians Wars united ATHENS and SPARTA against the Persians Athenian victory at Marathon & Salamis gave Greeks control of Aegean Sea Athens preserved its independence and continued innovations in government and culture

4 Importance of the Peloponnesian War
B.C.E Caused in part by competition for control of the Greek world Athens (Delian League) vs Sparta (Peloponnesian League) Resulted in the slowing of cultural advance and the weakening of political power.

5 Golden Age of Athens (Pericles)
Extended Democracy Rebuilt and Beautified Athens after Persian Wars One example was the Parthenon Designed by the sculptor Phidias

6 Greek Contributions to Western Civilization
Drama: Aeschylus and Sophocles Poetry: Homer (Illiad and Odyssey) History: Herodotus & Thucydides Sculpture: Phidias Architecture: Columns (3 types) Science: Archimedes & Hippocrates Mathematics: Euclid & Pythagoras Philosophy: Socrates, Plato, & Aristotle

7 Greek Columns

8 Macedonia and Hellenistic Culture
Phillip II, King of Macedonia conquered most of GREECE His son, ALEXANDER THE GREAT, established an empire that stretched from EGYPT to the edge of INDIA HELLENISTIC Culture: Blending of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian Cultures by Alexander Spread of Hellenistic Culture through Trade

9 Roman Mythology & Religion
Based on POLYTHEISTIC religion Offered explanations of NATURAL phenomenon, HUMAN qualities, and life events Symbols and Images used in Western Literature, Art, and Architecture

10 Punic Wars: Rome vs. Carthage
264to 146 B.C.E. War revolved around competition for trade Three wars resulted in Roman victory, Destruction of Carthage, extended trade & wealth of Rome During the 2nd Punic War, Hannibal invaded Roman Peninsula and was defeated by Scipio who attacked Carthage.

11 Roman Empire in the Punic Wars
Rome after 1st Punic War Rome after 2nd Punic War Rome after 3rd Punic War

12 Evolution of an Empire and Spread of Roman Culture
Rome included all of the Mediterranean Basin (Africa, Asia, Europe, & Hellenistic World of the Eastern Mediterranean Western Europe (Gaul, British Isles)

13 Decline of the Republic & The Rise of an Empire
Origin & Evolution of the Roman Empire Spread of Slavery in the Agricultural System Migration of small farmers into the cities (unemployment) Civil War over the power of Julius Caesar Inflation (value of currency goes down, costs of good go up) First Triumvirate (Caesar, Crassus, & Pompey) Julius Caesar: Seizing power, Dictator for Life, Assassination in the Senate Augustus Caesar (Octavian) Civil War, Defeated Marc Antony, 1st Emperor Failure to provide peaceful succession of leaders

14 Origins & Beliefs of Christianity
Origins of christianity Beliefs of christianity Had its roots in Judaism Was led by Jesus of Nazareth Jesus was proclaimed the Messiah: Son of God Conflicted with the polytheistic beliefs of the Roman Empire Monotheistic Jesus was seen as both the son and incarnation of God Life after Death New Testament of the Bible contains accounts of Jesus’ life and teachings

15 Spread of Christianity
Message was popular with common people Early martyrs inspired each other Carried by apostles (disciples) throughout the Roman Empire Paul, a Roman Citizen, traveled across the empire using the road system created by the Romans spreading Christianity.

16 Christianity and the Late Roman Empire
Constantine converted to Christianity & made it legal to practice Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of Rome The Church became a source of moral authority Loyalty to the church was more important that loyalty to the Emperor Main Unifying force in Western Europe after the fall of Rome.

17 Contributions of Ancient Rome
Art and Architecture: Pantheon, Colesseum, & the Forum Technology: Roads, Aqueducts, Arches Science: Ptolemy Medicine: Emphasis on Public Health Language: Latin & influence on Romance Languages Literature: Virgil’s Aeneid Religion: Mythology & then Christianity Law: “Innocent until proven guilty”

18 Roman Forum Pantheon Aqueducts Colosseum Roman Arches


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