Presentation on theme: "Keystone Anchor BIO.A.4.2 Explain mechanisms that permit organisms to maintain biological balance between their internal and external environments."— Presentation transcript:
1 Keystone AnchorBIO.A.4.2 Explain mechanisms that permit organisms to maintain biological balance between their internal and external environments.In other words - _______________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________BIO.A Explain how organisms maintain homeostasis (e.g., thermoregulation, water regulation, oxygen regulation).
2 KEY CONCEPT Homeostasis - regulation and maintenance of a CONSTANT environment in the body The term ‘homeostasis’ is derived from two Greek words; Homeo which means ‘unchanging’ and Stasis which means ‘standing’It is an organism’s internal environment which ‘stays the same’
3 Type 1Think about this person’s body, describe the factors that need to remain in homeostasis.
4 Sensors -gather data and detect changes Control systems in the body.poresweatglandshairfolliclemusclegoosebumpSensors -gather data and detect changesControl center - receives data, sends messages, usually the brain-Communication system - delivers messages in form of nerve impulses and hormones to target organs, tissuesTargets – organ, tissue or cell that responds to change
5 Negative feedback loops are necessary for homeostasis. Feedback compares current conditions to set ranges.Negative feedback- counteracts change.Reverses any change and returns body to set pointNegative Feedback Loop*O2 / CO2 level returns to normalHolding breath, CO2 levels rise,Control system forces exhale, inhaleKeep athlete running
6 KEY CONCEPT Systems interact to maintain homeostasis.
7 Each organ system affects other organ systems. Organ systems must also work together to keep the organism healthy.There is no specific organ which controls homeostasis.The skin, kidneys, liver, endocrine system, nervous system and sensory system all play a part in maintaining the internal environment within narrow limits.The hypothalamus is involvedto a degree in each of these regulations
8 Type I Describe how this picture of an automotive race team is similar to the systems of a body.
9 Body cells work best if they have the correct TemperatureGlucose concentration, (sugar)Water levelsHomeostasis involves keeping the internal environment within set ranges
10 Organs and involved: skin regulate water & mineral salts concentration Water - kidneys :regulate water & mineral salts concentrationThermoregulation –skin and muscles :regulate body temperatureGlucose - liver & pancreas :regulate blood glucose levelskintissue cellskidneybloodliver+pancreas
11 Thermoregulation – process of maintaining a steady body temperature SweatingWhen your body is hot, sweat glands are stimulated to release sweat.The liquid sweat turns into a gas (it evaporates)To do this, it needs heat.It gets that heat from your skin.As your skin loses heat, it cools down.
12 Thermoregulation – process of maintaining a steady body temperature ShiveringHypothalamus signals skin and muscular, respiratory, and circulatory systemsBlood vessels constrict to reduce blood flow to prevent loss of heatMuscles contract around poresMuscles contract causing shiveringThyroid releases hormones that increasemetabolism
13 Controlling Glucose levels Your cells also need an exact level of glucose in the blood.Excess glucose gets turned into glycogen in the liverThis is regulated by 2 hormones (chemicals) from the pancreas called Insulin and GlucagonIn this way, the concentration of glucose in the blood is kept within narrow limits
14 The glucose concentration in the blood is controlled by the pancreas 12The glucose concentration in the blood is controlled by the pancreasThe pancreas contains cells which produce digestive enzymes but it also produces the hormones insulin and glucagonIf the glucose concentration rises, the pancreas releases insulinIf the glucose concentration falls, the pancreas releases glucagon
15 Insulin stimulates the liver and muscles to remove excess glucose from the blood and store it as glycogenGlucagon stimulates the liver to convert its stored glycogen into glucose which is then released into the bloodstreamIn this way, the concentration of glucose in the blood is kept within narrow limits
16 Water RegulationAfter having a very salty mealproduce concentrated urine to remove excess salts in solution formextra water is needed to be excreted along with the excess saltssensation of thirst (drink more water to compensate for the water loss)
17 Water RegulationThe amount of water in the blood must be kept more or less the same all the time to avoid cell damage as a result of osmosis.There has to be a balance between the amount of water gained (from your diet though drinks and food and the water produced by cellular respiration) and the amount of water lost by the body (in sweating, evaporation, feces and urine).This is achieved by the action of the hormone ADH (anti-diuretic hormone).
18 Water RegulationPart of the brain, the hypothalamus, detects that there is not enough water in the blood. The hypothalamus sends a message to the pituitary gland which releases ADH.This travels in the blood to your kidneys and as a result you make a smaller volume of more concentrated urine. The level of water in your blood increases until it is back to normal.If the level of water in your blood goes up the hypothalamus detects the change and sends a message to the pituitary. The release of ADH into the blood is slowed down or even stopped. Without ADH the kidneys will not save as much water and you produce large volumes of dilute urine.This is an example of negative feedback.
19 There are 11 major organ systems in the human body.
20 TYPE IName 3 systems that help maintain homeostasis and describe how they work to maintain homeostasis.1.2.3.