Presentation on theme: "Chapter Eight Improving Performance with Feedback, Rewards, and Positive Reinforcement."— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter EightImproving Performance with Feedback, Rewards, and Positive Reinforcement
2 Motivation Defined Implications Associated with This Definition 6-2Motivation DefinedMotivation: Psychological processes that cause the arousal direction, and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directed.Implications Associated with This DefinitionBehavior is purposive rather than random - People exhibit both positive (work done on time) and negative (arrive late for work) behavior for a reasonMotivation arouses people to do something - People are unlikely to change a behavior or do something different unless they are motivated to do soMotivation causes people to focus on a desired end-result or goalMotivation fuels the persistence needed to exhibit sustained effort on a task
3 A Job Performance Model of Motivation Figure 6-1aA Job Performance Model of MotivationIndividual InputsSkillsAbility, Job knowledgeDispositions & TraitsEmotions, Moods, &AffectBeliefs & ValuesMotivational ProcessesArousal Attention Intensity & & Direction PersistenceMotivatedBehaviorsJob ContextPhysical EnvironmentTask DesignRewards & ReinforcementSupervisory Support & CoachingSocial NormsOrganizational CultureEnable, Limit
4 Negative and Positive Inequity Figure 7-1aNegative and Positive InequityA. An Equitable SituationOtherSelf$21 hour= $2 per hour$42 hours= $2 per hour
5 Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Concepts 7-6Vroom’s Expectancy Theory ConceptsExpectancy: Belief that effort leads to a specific level of performanceInstrumentality: A performance outcome perception.Valence: The Value of a reward or outcome
6 attainment strategies 7-8GoalsGoal: What an individual is trying to accomplish.Directingone’s attentionRegulatingone’s effortTaskperformanceGoalsmotivate theindividualby...Increasingone’s persistenceEncouraging thedevelopment of goal-attainment strategiesor action plans
7 Chapter Eight Outline Providing Effective Feedback Feedback Serves Two FunctionsThree Sources of Feedback: Others, Self, and TaskThe Recipient’s Perspective of FeedbackBehavioral Outcomes of FeedbackWhat about Nontraditional Upward Feedback and 360-Degree Feedback?Organizational Reward SystemsTypes of RewardsOrganizational Reward NormsDistribution CriteriaDesired Outcomes
8 Chapter Eight Outline (continued) Organizational Rewards Systems (continued)Why Rewards Often Fail to MotivatePositive ReinforcementThorndike’s Law of EffectSkinner’s Operant Conditioning ModelContingent ConsequencesSchedules of ReinforcementShaping Behavior with Positive Reinforcement
9 Timely and instructive Properly administered Positive Reinforcement Bolstering the Job Performance Cycle with Feedback, Rewards, and ReinforcementTimely and instructivefeedbackResultsLearningPersonal developmentStable, strong job performanceAbilityEffortProperly administeredRewards andPositive Reinforcement
10 FeedbackFeedback: “Objective information about individual or collective performance.”Functions of Feedback: Instructional MotivationalSources of FeedbackTaskSelfOthers
11 Hands-on exercise (p 204) Try this on your own Does it match your perception of your desire for feedback.How do you give feedback?
12 Notes on Feedback Role of perception Positive feedback more accurately perceived and recalledNegative feedback can be perceived as a challengeCare must be taken when giving negative feedbackFeedback and goal setting
13 Nontraditional Feedback 8-5Nontraditional FeedbackUpward Feedback: Subordinates evaluate their manager’s style and performance.360-Degree Feedback: Specific (typically anonymous) feedback generated by one’s manager, peers, subordinates, and other key people.
14 Skills and Best Practices: How to Make Sure Feedback Gets Results 8-6Skills and Best Practices: How to Make Sure Feedback Gets ResultsManagers need to keep the following tips in mind when giving feedback:Relate feedback to existing performance goals and clear expectations.Give specific feedback tied to observable behavior or measurable results.Channel feedback toward key result areas.Give feedback as soon as possible.Give positive feedback for improvement, not just final results.Focus feedback on performance, not personalities.Base feedback on accurate and credible information.
15 Key Factors in Organizational Reward Systems Organization’s Reward NormsProfit maximizationEquityEqualityNeedTypes of RewardsFinancial/material (extrinsic)Social (extrinsic)Psychic (intrinsic)Desired OutcomesAttractMotivateDevelopSatisfyRetainDistribution CriteriaResultsBehaviorOther factors
16 A few words on pay for performance Incentive payPiece rateResearch insights
17 Why Rewards Often Fail to Motivate 8-8Why Rewards Often Fail to MotivateToo much emphasis on monetary rewardsRewards lack an “appreciation effect”Extensive benefits become entitlementsCounterproductive behavior is rewardedToo long a delay between performance and rewardsToo many one-size-fits-all rewardsUse of one-shot rewards with a short-lived motivational impactContinued use of demotivating practices such as layoffs, across-the-board raises and cuts, and excessive executive compensation
18 Contingent Consequences in Operant Conditioning Nature of ConsequencesPositive or PleasingNegative or DispleasingPositive Reinforcement Behavioral outcome: Target behavior occurs more often.Punishment Behavioral outcome: Target behavior occurs less often.Contingent PresentationPunishment (Response Cost) Behavioral outcome: Target behavior occurs less often.Negative Reinforcement Behavioral outcome: Target behavior occurs more often.Behavior-Consequence RelationshipContingent Withdrawal(no contingent consequence)Extinction Behavioral outcome: Target behavior occurs less often
19 Schedules of Reinforcement 8-10Table 8-1Schedules of ReinforcementSchedule DescriptionContinuous Reinforcer follows every response (CRF)Intermittent Reinforcer does not follow every responseFixed ratio (FR) A fixed number of responses must be emitted before reinforcement occurs.Variable ratio (VR) A varying or random number of responses must be emitted before reinforcement occurs.Fixed interval (FI) The first response after a specific period of time has elapsed is reinforcedVariable interval (VI) The first response after varying or random periods of time have elapsed is reinforced.
20 Skills and Best Practices: How to Effectively Shape Job Behavior 8-11Skills and Best Practices: How to Effectively Shape Job BehaviorAccommodate the process of behavioral change.Define new behavior patterns specifically.Give individuals feedback on their performance.Reinforce behavior as quickly as possible.Use powerful reinforcement.Use a continuous reinforcement schedule (for new behaviors)Use a variable reinforcement schedule for maintenanceReward teamwork -- not competition.Make all rewards contingent on performance.Never take good performance for granted.