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A Human Rights-Based Approach to Monitoring Session 6 (cont.)

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Presentation on theme: "A Human Rights-Based Approach to Monitoring Session 6 (cont.)"— Presentation transcript:

1 A Human Rights-Based Approach to Monitoring Session 6 (cont.)
Expected Results Participants have a common understanding of RBM, and can explain how a HRBA strengthens the formulation of results and indicators Participants have practiced the formulation of outcomes, outputs, and indicators, on the basis of a human rights-based analysis Participants have a better sense of the struggle that many UNCTs go through as they attempt to formulate SMART results in the inter-agency setting

2 Monitoring vs. Evaluation
Systematic, ongoing During programme implementation Tracking of activities and progress According to AWP For short term corrective action Accountability for implementation Contributes to evaluation Conducted by insiders Are we doing things right? Systematic, periodic During and after programme implementation Judgement of merit, value or worth of a programme/project Compared to evaluation criteria (relevance, effectiveness, impact) For decision-making about future programmes Accountability for results For office & organizational learning Conducted by impartial outsiders Did we do the right things? 2

3 A Human Rights Based Approach to Monitoring
Monitoring that is sensitive to human rights applies the human rights principles and standards to inform and strengthen… Results and indicators Processes (both development processes and processes for monitoring and reporting) It asks some fundamental questions What to measure? Who to involve? How to measure? Monitoring and evaluation of activities are essential for tracking whether activities are being carried out as planned and whether they are having the anticipated impact. A coherent and coordinated monitoring and evaluation system can ensure that: relevant, timely and accurate data are made available to programme leaders and managers at each level of the programme; selected quality data are reported to national programme leaders; and the national programme is able to meet donor and international reporting requirements. A comprehensive monitoring and evaluation plan sensitive to human rights concerns will address process, outcome and impact data as a means of assessing programme progress and effectiveness. A human rights-based monitoring and evaluation plan will also be culturally sensitive, because it requires some introspection on your part as to how and why you are supporting this national programme and whether it is an appropriate programme for the context in which you are working. Continuous monitoring and evaluation can help you determine if the programme is taking on the cultural nuances that may be necessary in order to ensure success in the long term. Why does a HRBA focus so much on process? because it helps to ensure that the most marginalized people are getting involved and contributing to the programme; because in development, the effectiveness of a programme is seen not only in its outputs, but also in its processes; because the final outcomes of a programme as it relates to realization of human rights may only be visible in the long term, a good way of checking the effectiveness of the programme is to ensure the process is human rights-friendly. Process monitoring Checks that vulnerable groups are involved in programme implementation and benefit equally from programme results Ensures that intended beneficiaries are able to participate freely in monitoring and reporting processes 3

4 What to Measure? Ideally: Results
Outputs Outcomes Impacts (often tied to National monitoring systems for the National Plans, PRSs, and MDGs) Mechanisms and processes for programme implementation, monitoring and reporting A HRBA gives importance not only to the intended results of a programme, but also to the processes by which the programme is implemented. Therefore, a HRBA and RBM call for monitoring the implementation process as well as the outputs. Ideally, a HRBA should be implemented when measuring outcomes and impacts as well - although understandably, these are much harder to measure. 4

5 Who to Involve? Another way of thinking about how to apply principles of ‘participation and inclusion’ to M&E process A HRBA Ensures that both rights-holders and duty-bearers are involved in M&E Will pay special attention to measures that include vulnerable groups Who to involve? This refers to the principle of participation. A HRBA calls for ensuring that both rights-holders and duty-bearers are involved in monitoring and evaluation, as well as individuals or groups, such as NGOs, who are external to the project and can give an objective perspective. Reaching disadvantaged groups may require partnering with local groups or adopting specific techniques for reaching the marginalized and excluded. All of these stakeholders should be actively involved in the processes of monitoring and evaluation; they should also be part of workshops where the findings of such work are disseminated.

6 How to Measure? Human rights principles and standards guide the selection of indicators and the development of monitoring and reporting systems Indicators should be chosen that: Capture the extent to which human rights principles have been incorporated into all stages of the programme Demonstrate how incorporating human rights standards has contributed to overall programme effectiveness (need practical example of this) Processes must be non-discriminatory, participatory and accountable Be wary of “elite capture” The best indicators are those that are clear and simple. Examples of UNFPA indicators include some of the MDG indicators, such as ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education; maternal mortality ratio; contraceptive prevalence rate; HIV prevalence rate; and so forth. Other UNFPA indicators, such as those used in programmes focusing on maternal mortality, include: proportion of all births in basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care facilities; Caesarean sections as a proportion (%) of all births; obstetric case fatality rate; and amount of basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care facilities available per population, etc. Indicators should be chosen that capture the extent to which human rights have been incorporated into all stages of the programme (from the situation assessment and analysis to the monitoring and evaluation), and demonstrate how incorporating rights has contributed to overall programme effectiveness. However, you must also ensure that your process of monitoring and evaluation is participatory, non-discriminatory, and open and transparent for the purposes of accountability.

7 What is an indicator? A tool to measure evidence of progress towards a result or that a result has been achieved 7

8 Objectively verifiable measures of a particular condition
Indicators Indicators describe how the intended results will be measured - accountability Objectively verifiable measures of a particular condition They force clarification of what is meant by the result  like the “fine print” of an agreement Must be accompanied by baselines and targets

9 Baseline, Target and Achievement
Performance Commitment Achievement At end of period Planned Level of Achievement Current Level of Achievement All indicators must be accompanied by baselines and targets. Without these, measurement of change over time is not possible. Baselines establish the value of the indicator at the beginning of the planning period Targets describe expected values upon completion of the plan Performance monitoring of the indicator tells us about actual achievement, compared to the original target Baseline Target Achievement 9

10 Types of Indicators Qualitative judgments or perceptions:
Alignment with Presence of Quality of Extent of Level of Quantitative statistical measures: Number of Frequency of % of Ratio of Variance with 10

11 Example: Indicators, Baseline, Target and Source of Data
Net enrolment ratio (M; F) Baseline: F:45% Target: F: 75% - Improvement in school test scores Outcome: By 2007, more girls in Belem Province enjoy a quality, basic education Source of Data MICS (survey) Annual school test scores report Indicator: # Teachers with new certification Baseline: 0 Target: 800 Teacher proficiency reports Improvement of school satisfaction ratings Output: 800 teachers in Belem Province can deliver the new curriculum effectively Source of Data: MECYS EMIS School satisfaction surveys 11

12 HRBA and indicator development
Inclusiveness: Do your indicators capture the experience of vulnerable and marginalised groups? Can your indicators be disaggregated? Ownership: Have RHs and DBs contributed to the development of the indicators? Do they have confidence in the indicators chosen? Clarity: Are they clear and understandable to all audiences, including vulnerable and marginalised groups? 12

13 Group Work (30 m) In Groups…
Develop 2 indicators for each outcome and contributing output Add to your results framework…

14 Group Work (15 m) In Groups… Choose 1 principle from…
Equality and non-discrimination Participation and inclusion Accountability and rule of law Make up to 3 changes in your results framework (results and indicators) to reflect the principle Be ready to present in plenary…

15 Human Rights Principles
Universality and inalienability Indivisibility Interdependence and Inter-relatedness Equality and non-discrimination Participation and inclusion Accountability and rule of law The colour shows a difference between the two sets of principles. Those in green are content oriented while those in white are process oriented. Tip for presenter. HR Principles will be treated in more detailed through a separate presentation. This is to provide quick understanding of definitions Universality and inalienability: Human rights are universal and inalienable. Every man, woman or child everywhere in the world are holders of human rights by virtue of being human. The human person in whom they inhere cannot voluntarily give them up. Nor can others take them away from him or her. Article 1 of the UDHR, “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.” Universality also refers to the obligation of every State to respect and protect the human rights in international instruments. These rights form a core minimum standard to be observed by every State. Indivisibility: Human rights are indivisible. Whether of a civil, cultural, economic, political or social nature, they are all inherent to the dignity of every human person. Consequently, they all have equal status as rights, and cannot be ranked Inter-dependence and Inter-relatedness: The realization of one right often depends, wholly or in part, upon the realization of others. For instance, realization of the right to health may depend, in certain circumstances, on realization of the right to education, the right to information, the right to food and nutrition, the right to safe water and sanitation etc. A malnourished girl is unable to perform in school and to benefit from an education that will enable her to participate in civil society and in the democratic process. Equality and Non-discrimination: All individuals are equal as human beings and by virtue of the inherent dignity of each human person. All human beings are entitled to their human rights without discrimination of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, age, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, disability, property, birth or other status as established by the human rights treaties and further interpreted by the human rights treaty bodies. For this reason, the advancement of the human rights of both men and women on the basis of equality is an absolute requirement of international human rights law. Participation and Inclusion: Every person and all peoples are entitled to active, free and meaningful participation in, contribution to, and enjoyment of civil, economic, social, cultural and political development in which human rights and fundamental freedoms can be realized. Accountability and Rule of Law: States and other duty-bearers are answerable for the observance of human rights. In this regard, they have to comply with the legal norms and standards enshrined in human rights instruments. Where they fail to do so, aggrieved rights-holders are entitled to institute proceedings for appropriate redress

16 Gallery Your opportunity to “visit” other groups and give feedback
Reflect on… The logical flow of results and use of change language The SMART-ness of the framework, particularly the formulation of indicators, assumptions and risks The linkage between the results framework and the human rights-based analysis.  Is it intuitive?  Do the results respond to the underlying and root problems revealed by the analysis?  Do the outcomes show changes in the performance of rights-holder to claim their rights, duty-bearers to meet their obligations?  Do the outputs address identified capacity gaps? !! Remember - leave comments behind on post-it notes. 16

17 HRBA-RBM in the UNDAF Process
RBM connects analysis of country challenges to evidence about progress and lessons-learned HRBA offers the right questions to ask Road Map - Preparation process of the UNDAF Country Analysis - Review existing analysis (assessment) - UNCT supported analysis - Identify UNCT comparative advantages Strategic Planning - Strategic priorities for UNDAF/ UNDAF Action Plan Programme Planning & Implementation (Agency or Multi-Agency Joint Programmes) Monitoring & Evaluation RBM demands… - Working mechanisms for UNDAF monitoring and reporting - Use of UNDAF performance information by the UNCT and partners for decision-making HRBA guides the process to measure, monitor, and report on progress with all stakeholders RBM engages partners to formulate SMART results, and develop mechanisms and processes to ensure regular monitoring and reporting on UNDAF performance. HRBA shows the kinds of results we should be aiming for

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