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Unit 2: Regional Civilizations 730 BC – 1650 AD

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1 Unit 2: Regional Civilizations 730 BC – 1650 AD
(Part 2: Chapters ) The Middle Ages in Africa, the Middle East and Asia

2 Ch 10 Review Questions Who is Muhammad and why is he significant to World History? What are some important beliefs of Muslims? What were some social and economic advances brought about by Muslim empires?

3 Chapter 11: Kingdoms and Trading States of Africa (730 BC – AD 1591)
Trade routes are the key to holding power and transferring culture in Medieval Africa.

4 S1: Early Civilizations of Africa
* The Influence of Geography Africa is the 2nd largest continent Wide range of climates, vegetation, and terrains Variety = diversity of culture in Africa

5 Resources Spur Trade Since ancient times, Africa’s mineral wealth has spurred trade across the continent and into other continents. Ex: Salt, Gold, Iron, Copper Valuable items to early trade that brought wealth and power to African trading cities. How do you think understanding trade can help us better understand the history of Africa?

6 S2: Kingdoms of West Africa
Some African Medieval Cities become wealthy commercial centers. Between , several powerful kingdoms win control of these prosperous cities and their trade.

7 Kingdoms of West Africa
Ghana Founded around AD 800, Located near the Niger and Senegal rivers, the king controlled the gold-salt trade routes across West Africa Mali Around 1235 AD, wins control of the gold trade routes after the collapse of Ghana’s empire Songhai Around 1400, establishes its kingdom in West Africa as Mali’s empire loses its power

8 S3: Kingdoms and Trading States of East Africa
Axum (Aksum): Center of Goods and Ideas By AD 300s, Christianity spreads to Africa and the King of Axum names it the official religion By AD 400, commanded a triangular trade network that connected Africa, India, and the Mediterranean world.

9 Ethiopia A Christian Outpost Medieval Ethiopia Descendants of Axum
Success due in part to the unifying power of their Christian faith. Ethiopia

10 S4: Societies in Medieval Africa
*Key Thought: Africa’s varied geography and climates and the development of migration and trade have played major roles in how early societies developed throughout the continent. How do you think geography / climate / migration / trade can impact the development of a society?

11 Elements of African Society
Family Patterns Each family belonged to a lineage (common ancestor) Patrilineal: inheritance passed through the father’s side Matrilineal: inheritance passed through the mother’s side Political Patterns Varied based on culture and size of community Ex: In some villages, a chief had most of the authority, but in other villages a group of elders made the major decisions. Religious Beliefs Various beliefs early on, but by 1000 AD both Christianity and Islam spread to many regions of Africa

12 Ch. 11 Quick Review What are some factors that helped shape the development of early civilizations in Africa? What seemed to be the key to power for West African Kingdoms such as Ghana, Mali, and Songhai? What two major world religions spread into Africa and impacted its development?

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