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R Review of Basic Concepts © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Sections R.5–R.7

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-71 R.5 Rational Expressions R.6 Rational Exponents R.7 Radical Expressions Review of Basic Concepts R

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-72 Rational Expressions R.5 Rational Expressions ▪ Lowest Terms of a Rational Expression ▪ Multiplication and Division ▪ Addition and Subtraction ▪ Complex Fractions

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Methods of Factoring Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-73 1.Greatest Common Factor(gcf) – the product of each prime factor to its highest power. Useful for any number of terms. 2.Factoring by grouping – factor common factors for grouping of two terms at a time. Used for 4 terms. 3.Factoring patterns: a.Difference of Two Squares: 2 x 2 – y 2 = (x + y)( x - y) b.Perfect Squares Trinomial: 2 x 2 – 2xy + y 2 = ( x - y) 2 2 x 2 + 2xy + y 2 = ( x + y) 2 2 4.Trinomials - ax 2 + bx + c i.a = 1 ii.a ≠ 1

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R.5 Example 1(a) Writing Rational Expressions in Lowest Terms (page 44) Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-74 Write the rational expression in lowest terms. (a) Factor. Divide out the common factor.

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-75 Write the rational expression in lowest terms. (b) R.5 Example 1(b) Writing Rational Expressions in Lowest Terms (page 44) Factor. Multiply numerator and denominator by –1. Divide out the common factor.

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-76 R.5 Example 2(a) Multiplying or Dividing Rational Expressions (page 45) Multiply. Factor. Divide out common factors, then simplify.

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-77 Multiply. R.5 Example 2(b) Multiplying or Dividing Rational Expressions (page 45) Factor. Multiply. Divide out common factors, then simplify.

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-78 R.5 Example 2(c) Multiplying or Dividing Rational Expressions (page 45) Divide. Multiply by the reciprocal of the divisor. Factor. Multiply, then divide out common factors.

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-79 R.5 Example 2(d) Multiplying or Dividing Rational Expressions (page 45) Multiply. Factor. Multiply, then divide out common factors.

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-80 R.5 Example 3(a) Adding or Subtracting Rational Expressions (page 47) Add Find the LCD:

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-81 R.5 Example 3(b) Adding or Subtracting Rational Expressions (page 47) Add Find the LCD:

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-82 R.5 Example 3(c) Adding or Subtracting Rational Expressions (page 47) Subtract Find the LCD:

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-83 R.5 Example 4(a) Simplifying Complex Fractions (page 49) Simplify Multiply the numerator and denominator by the LCD of all the fractions, x 2.

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-84 Rational Exponents R.6 Negative Exponents and the Quotient Rule ▪ Rational Exponents ▪ Complex Fractions Revisited

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Rules for Exponents 1.Product Rule: a m. a n = a m+n 2.Quotient Rule:a m /a n = a m-n 3.Power Rules:(ab) m = a m b m (a/b) m = a m /b m (a m ) n = a mn 4.Negative Exponent: a -m = 1/a m 5.Zero Exponent: a 0 = 1 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-85

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-86 R.6 Example 1 Using the Definition of a Negative Exponent (page 53) Evaluate each expression. (a)(b)(c) (a) (b) (c)

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-87 R.6 Example 1 Using the Definition of a Negative Exponent (cont.) Write the expression without negative exponents. (d) (e)

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-88 R.6 Example 2 Using the Quotient Rule (page 54) Simplify each expression. (a) (b) (c) (d)

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-89 R.6 Example 3(a) Using Rules for Exponents (page 54) Simplify.

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-90 R.6 Example 3(b) Using Rules for Exponents (page 54) Simplify.

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-91 R.6 Example 4 Using the Definition of a 1/n (page 55) Evaluate each expression. (a)(b) (c)(d) (e)(f) (g)(h) not a real number

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-92 R.6 Example 5 Using the Definition of a m/n (page 56) Evaluate each expression. (a) (b) (c)

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-93 R.6 Example 5 Using the Definition of a m/n (cont.) Evaluate each expression. (d) (e) (f) is not a real number because is not a real number.

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-94 Radical Expressions R.7 Radical Notations ▪ Simplified Radicals ▪ Operations with Radicals ▪ Rationalizing Denominators

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Radical Notation Conversion from rational to radical: Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-95

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-96 R.7 Example 1 Evaluating Roots (page 63) Write each root using exponents and evaluate. (a) (b) (c) (d) is not a real number.

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-97 R.7 Example 1 Evaluating Roots (cont.) Write each root using exponents and evaluate. (e) (f)

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-98 R.7 Example 2 Converting From Rational Exponents to Radicals (page 63) Write in radical form and simplify. (a) (b) (c) (d)

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-99 R.7 Example 2 Converting From Rational Exponents to Radicals (cont.) Write in radical form and simplify. (e) (f) (g)

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-100 R.7 Example 3 Converting From Radicals to Rational Exponents (page 63) Write in exponential form. (a) (b) (c) = 15r 4/3 (d) (e)

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-101 R.7 Example 4 Using Absolute Value to Simplify Roots (page 64) Simplify each expression. (a) (b) (c) (d)

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-102 R.7 Example 4 Using Absolute Value to Simplify Roots (cont.) Simplify each expression. (e) (f) (g)

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-103 R.7 Example 5 Using the Rules for Radicals to Simplify Radical Expressions (page 65) Simplify each expression. (a) (b) (c)

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-104 R.7 Example 6 Simplifying Radicals (page 66) Simplify each radical. (a) (b) (c)

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-105 R.7 Example 8 Simplifying Radicals by Writing Them With Rational Exponents (page 67) Simplify each radical. (a) (b) (c)

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-106 R.7 Example 9(a) Multiplying Radical Expressions (page 68) Find the product. Product of the sum and difference of two terms.

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-107 R.7 Example 9(b) Multiplying Radical Expressions (page 68) Find the product. Simplify FOIL

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-108 R.7 Example 10 Rationalizing Denominators (page 68) Rationalize each denominator. (a) (b)

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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. R-109 R.7 Example 12 Rationalizing a Binomial Denominator (page 69) Rationalize the denominator. Multiply the numerator and denominator by the conjugate of the denominator.

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