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How to evaluate listening skills

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Presentation on theme: "How to evaluate listening skills"— Presentation transcript:

1 How to evaluate listening skills

2 Observing the Performance of the Four Skills
Things that we can observe during listening as the receptive skills are process and product (invisible, audible)

3 The Importance of Listening
Listening is often implied as a component of speaking

4 Types of Listening Intensive: phonemes, words, intonation
Responsive: a greeting, command, question Selective: TV , radio news items, stories Extensive: listening for the gist, the main idea, making inference

5 Micro and Macro Skills of Listening
Micro Skills Attending to the smaller bits and chunks of language, in more of bottom-up process Macro Skills Focusing on the larger elements involved in a top-down approach

6 What Makes Listening Difficult
Clustering Chunking-phrases, clauses, constituents Redundancy Repetitions, Rephrasing, Elaborations and Insertions

7 3. Reduced Forms Understanding the reduced forms that may not have been a part of English learner’s past experiences in classes where only formal ” textbook” language has been presented 4. Performance variables Hesitations, False starts, Corrections, Diversion

8 5. Colloquial Language Idioms, slang, reduced forms, shared cultural knowledge 6. Rate of Delivery Keeping up with the speed of delivery, processing automatically as the speaker continues

9 7. Stress, Rhythm, and Intonation
Correctly understanding prosodic elements of spoken language, which is almost always much more difficult than understanding the smaller phonological bits and pieces.

10 8. Interaction Negotiation, clarification, attending signals, turn taking, maintenance, termination

11 Designing Assessment Tasks
Negotiation, clarification, attending signals, turn taking, maintenance, termination

12 Intensive Listening Recognizing Phonological & Morphological Elements
Designing Assessment Tasks: Intensive Listening Recognizing Phonological & Morphological Elements Phonemics pair, consonants Test takers read : He’s from California b. She’s from California

13 Appropriate response to a question Test-takers read :
Designing Assessment Tasks: Responsive Listening Appropriate response to a question Test-takers read : In about an hour. b. About an hour c. About $10 d. Yes, I did

14 Designing Assessment Tasks: Selective Listening
Selective listening, in which the test-taker listen to a limited quantity of aural input and must discern within it some specific information

15 Listening Cloze (cloze dictations or partial dictations)
It requires the test-taker to listen a story monologue, or conversation and simultaneously read the written text in which selected words or phrases have been selected In a listening cloze task, test-takers see a transcript of the passage that they are listening to and fill in the blanks with the words or phrases that they hear

16 Test-takers write the missing words or phrases in the blanks

17 Information Transfer Information transfer: multiple-picture-cued-selection

18 Information Transfer Information transfer: single-picture-cued-verbal-multiple-choice

19 Information transfer:
Chart - Filling

20 Sentence Repetition The task of simply repeating a sentence or a partial sentence, or sentence repetition, is also used as an assessment of listening comprehension

21 Designing assessment Test:
Extensive Listening Listening to develop a top down, global understanding of spoken language

22 Some extensive / quasi-extensive listening comprehension tasks
Dictation: widely researched genre of assessing listening comprehension 50 – 100 words recited 3 times: normal speed, long pauses between phrases, normal speed

23 Communicative stimulus-response tasks
Listen to a monologue or conversation and respond to a set of comprehension questions. Disadvantages: some of the multiple-choice questions don’t mirror communicative real-life situations.

24 Authentic listening tasks
Ideally, listening tests are cognitively demanding, communicative, authentic, and interaction. Test as a sample of performance/tasks implies an equally limited capacity to mirror all the real-world context of listening performance

25 Alternatives to assess comprehension in a truly communicative context
Note taking Listening to a lecturer and write down the important ideas. Disadvantage: scoring is time consuming Advantages: mirror real classroom situation it fulfills the criteria of cognitive demand, communicative language & authenticity

26 Editing Editing a written stimulus of an aural stimulus

27 Interpretive tasks paraphrasing a story or conversation
Potential stimuli include: song lyrics, poetry, radio, TV, news reports, etc.

28 The stimuli can be directed through questions like: “why was the singer feeling sad?”, “what do you think the political activists might do next?” Difficulties: The task conforms to certain time limitation, and the questions might be quite specific, there may be more than one correct interpretation

29 Retelling Listen to a story or news event and simply retell it either orally or written show full comprehension Difficulties: scoring and reliability validity, cognitive, communicative ability, authenticity are well incorporated into the task. Interactive listening (face to face conversations)

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