2 Notes Valid Opinion supported by - facts - expert - authority Faulty Opinion supported by other opinionsignores valid facts that contradict it.shows biasBias- unfair preference of dislike
3 Basic Facts Audience: American People Topic: Volunteerism Position: Pro- We should volunteer to helpothers, especially children.Purpose: To persuade Americans to help thosein need
4 Word Choice Connotation- positive or negative value of a word. Mostly positive word choicesPride, Promise, Enthusiasm, PledgeOpinion- what you thinkGeneralization- Conclusion based on factsOvergeneralization- a conclusion that is too extreme to be supported by facts
5 Notes 15 million children are at risk. Children have simple needs caring adultsafe place to learnhealthy startmarketable skillsopportunity to serve others
6 More Notes Speech was presented in Philadelphia Founding Fathers were volunteersNot all Americans share in the American DreamHe uses the poem by Langston Hughes “Dream Deferred” – appeal to emotion
7 NotesColin Powell focuses on children because they have simple, manageable needs and they will grow up to help othersAddresses concerns of audience- task is too greatGeneralization- “All of us can spare thirty minutes a week.”Individuals will spread cause- governors and mayors support the cause-appeal to authorityCall to Action- VOLUNTEER!
8 Answers to Workbook 136 Support Adequate Powell has already noted You tell me.that 15 million children areat risk.Powell identifies simple needs: You tell meCaring adult, safe place to learn,healthy start, marketable skills,opportunity to serve othersPowell outlines how specific You tell mepeople (mayors, governors) willspread the message.
9 Answers to workbook 1371. Informal. By referring to those less fortunate as “our brother and sisters,” the author implies that the people who need help should be looked on as part of the American “family.”2. Informal (Formal) The words commit and promise convey the feeling that volunteering one’s time and effort are honorable and worthy goals.3. Informal. By suggesting that volunteers metaphorically “reach out and touch” those in need, the author reminds them that what they will be doing is personal.
10 Answers to Vocabulary 138A. 1. Synonym: hopes He has hopes of becoming an astronaut.2. Synonym: postponed The meeting was postponed until after the holidays.3. Synonym: sympathetic She was sympathetic toward those whose homes had been destroyed in the flood.4. Synonym: partnership Because the business was a partnership, the founders shared the profits equally.B. 1. D A C D