Download presentation

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Published byMeagan Fisher Modified over 8 years ago

1
MEASUREMENT (A Quantitative Observation) MEASUREMENTS always have 2 things: Number & Unit All measurements have error in them! A measurement consists of all known digits that can be known accurately PLUS one digit that is ESTIMATED. The estimated digit is always at the END of the number in a measurement.

2
MEASUREMENT & Degrees of Error The closer a measurement is to the true value, the more accurate the measurement. Accurate measurements are “more correct” and closer to the true value. Accuracy = Correctness. How close a series of measurements are to one another is called precision. Precise measurements are close in value to one another; repeated measures are precise. Precision = Reproducibility.

3
Accuracy vs. Precision Another example: a 5 lb bag of potatoes is weighed by 3 people, 3 times each. Person 1 4.9 lbs 4.8 lbs 4.85 lbs Person 2 4.0 lbs 3.5 lbs 5 lbs Person 3 4.0 lbs 4.1 lbs 4.2 lbs Good Accuracy Good Precision Poor Accuracy Poor Precision Poor Accuracy Good Precision

4
Determining Error Accepted value is the correct value based on reliable references. Reference: boiling point of water is 100.0°C Experimental value: temperature of boiling water measured to be 99.1°C ERROR = experimental – accepted value

5
ERROR = (99.1°C – 100.0 °C) = –0.9 °C (-) means your measurement was less than the number of the true value. (+) means your measurement is greater than the true value. PERCENT ERROR is an absolute value: %ERROR = (0.9/100) x 100 = 0.9%

6
A way to express very large or very small numbers easily. Example:.0000000000000036333 seconds = 3.6333 x 10 -15 seconds = 9.8765 x 10 12 minutes 9876500000000 minutes SCIENTIFIC NOTATION

7
Practice (1).000565 g 5.65 x 10 -4 g (2) 565000 s 5.65 x 10 5 s (3) 43454 min 4.3454 x 10 4 min (4).0010 L 1.0 x 10 -3 L

8
Measurement Limitations ALL measurements have error in them! A measurement consists of all known digits that can be known accurately PLUS one digit that is estimated. The estimated digit is always at the end of the number in a measurement. All of the digits that are known in a measurement are significant figures. Fewer significant figures = more rounding in a measurement = more error.

9
What are the following lengths (in meters)? (A) (B) (C)

10
ANSWERS (A) 0.3 m (1 decimal place) (B) 0.26 m (2 decimal places) (C) 0.260 m (3 decimal places)

11
What is the density of a sample with a mass of 24.47 g and a volume of 13.2 mL? A. 1.9 g/mL B. 1.8537 g/mL C. 1.854 g/mL D. 1.85 g/mL APPLYING SIG FIGS to MEASUREMENT: HINT: Your FINAL answer cannot be more accurate than the least accurate measurement.

12
What is the density of a sample with a mass of 24.47 g and a volume of 13.2 mL? A. 1.9 g/mL B. 1.8537 g/mL C. 1.854 g/mL D. 1.85 g/mL APPLYING SIG FIGS to MEASUREMENT: Because 13.2 mL is accurate to only one decimal place, the answer can be no more accurate than one decimal place.

13
Easy Rules To Sig Figs ALL trailing zeros in a non-decimal are NOT significant (they act as placeholders only) ALL leading zeros in a decimal are NOT significant (they act as placeholders only) Sandwhiched zeros count (i.e. 101, 0.101) In a decimal, if the zero in question has a number 1 thru 9 before it anywhere in the number, it is significant! (i.e. 0.000000100000)

14
Putting It ALL Together

15
the speed of light = 299 792 458 m / s 9 significant figures (sig figs) 2.99 792 458 x 10 8 m/s 8 sig figs = 2.99 792 46 x 10 8 m/s 7 sig figs = 2.99 792 5 x 10 8 m/s 6 sig figs = 2.99 792 x 10 8 m/s 5 sig figs = 2.99 79 x 10 8 m/s 4 sig figs = 2.99 8 x 10 8 m/s 3 sig figs = 3.00 x 10 8 m/s 2 sig figs = 3.0 x 10 8 m/s 1 sig figs = 3 x 10 8 m/s

16
ROUNDING 123 456 789 123456790 123456800 123457000 123460000 123500000 123000000 120000000 100000000 = 1.2345679 x 10 8 = 1.234568 x 10 8 = 1.23457 x 10 8 = 1.2346 x 10 8 = 1.235 x 10 8 = 1.23 x 10 8 = 1.2 x 10 8 = 1 x 10 8

17
Determine the Significant Figures 1.0 blah 100000000.0 blah 100 blah 100. blah 0.10 blah 0.01 blah 0.010 blah 101 blah

18
Answers 1.0 blah 2 sig figs 100000000.0 blah 10 sig figs 100 blah 1 sig fig 100. blah 3 sig figs 0.10 blah 2 sig figs 0.01 blah 1 sig fig 0.010 blah 2 sig figs 101 blah 3 sig figs

19
Answers in Scientific Notation 1.0 x 10 0 blah 2 sig figs 1.000000000 x 10 8 blah 10 sig figs 1 x 10 2 blah 1 sig fig 1.00 x 10 2 blah 3 sig figs 1.0 x 10 -1 blah 2 sig figs 1 x 10 -2 blah 1 sig fig 1.0 x 10 -2 blah 2 sig figs 1.01 x 10 2 blah 3 sig figs

Similar presentations

© 2023 SlidePlayer.com Inc.

All rights reserved.

To make this website work, we log user data and share it with processors. To use this website, you must agree to our Privacy Policy, including cookie policy.

Ads by Google