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The First Phase of Industrialization of Québec

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Presentation on theme: "The First Phase of Industrialization of Québec"— Presentation transcript:

1 The First Phase of Industrialization of Québec
1867 – 1896

2 Industrialization Industrialization is the process of transforming an agricultural and cottage-industry economy into one in which production is organized in factories, using new technology, machinery and division of labour to achieve economies of scale, lower production costs, lower prices and larger markets

3 Industrialization Industrialization brings with it major changes in the way in which a society is organized and in the relations between various social groups. Managers, engineers and technicians achieve new levels of importance while a new large social class called wage earners or workers is created (and possibly exploited).

4 Industrialization Modern societies try to maintain the benefits of industrialization (higher production and living standards) while controlling its growth and negative side-effects (pollution of the environment, child labor, the growth of monopolies or trusts and an unfair distribution of income).

5 Urbanization Urbanization is the process by which people increasingly locate in cities and towns. It is closely associated with industrialization and means different types of jobs, land use, consumer demand, industries, political & social values, transportation needs and lifestyles.

6 The First Phase of Industrialization of Québec (1867 - 1896)
Industrialization brought about many economic and social changes to Québec society. Several factors encouraged the development of industries at this time. The displaced rural population and a large number of immigrants from Europe provided an abundant source of cheap labour. The development of efficient transportation systems (railways, canals and the St. Lawrence River) allowed raw materials and finished products to be moved relatively cheaply. Raw materials (wood, leather and agricultural products) were readily available.

7 The First Phase of Industrialization of Québec (1867 - 1896)
British investors were eager to invest capital in new enterprises. The St. Lawrence and other rivers provided an energy source to drive the machinery. The National Policy of 1878 gave producers a growing domestic market (due to increased immigration) in western Canada and protection from foreign competition (high protective tariffs).

8 The First Phase of Industrialization of Québec (1867 - 1896)
Most of the new industries were small manufacturing establishments which required mostly cheap unskilled workers. Working conditions in these places were very difficult. Most factories were located near railways and canals (i.e. the Lachine canal). The main types of early manufacturing enterprises were: food processing (Flour milling, milk and milk products and meat packing), leather goods (shoes), textiles, tobacco, transportation equipment ( engines, railway cars and rails) and wood products ( lumber, early pulp & paper mills and furniture).

9 The First Phase of Industrialization of Québec (1867 - 1896)
Mainly in cities Small manufacturers Goods sold in Canada Textiles, shoes, food processing Switch from subsistence farming to market farming/ from wheat farming to dairy farming Emigration from rural areas Urbanization - Growth of cities Poor working & living conditions High infant mortality & low life expectancy Exploitation of women & children Workers began to form labour unions Most capital came from local investors or from Britain

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