# ECE 4371, Fall, 2014 Introduction to Telecommunication Engineering/Telecommunication Laboratory Zhu Han Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

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ECE 4371, Fall, 2014 Introduction to Telecommunication Engineering/Telecommunication Laboratory Zhu Han Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Class 4 Sep. 8 th, 2014

Overview Homework –4.2.1, 4.2.3, 4.2.5, 4.2.7, 4.2.9 –4.3.3, 4.3.8 –4.4.2, 4.4.4 –4.5.2 –4.8.1 –Due 9/22/14 Phase-locked loop FM basics

Carrier Recover Error DSB: e(t)=2m(t)cos(w c t)cos((w c +  w)t+  ) e(t)=m(t) cos((  w)t+  ) –Phase error: if fixed, attenuation. If not, shortwave radio –Frequency error: catastrophic beating effect SSB, only frequency changes,  f<30Hz. –Donald Duck Effect Crystal oscillator, atoms oscillator, GPS, … Pilot: a signal, usually a single frequency, transmitted over a communications system for supervisory, control, equalization, continuity, synchronization, or reference purposes.signalfrequency communications systemequalizationsynchronizationreference

Phase-Locked Loop Can be a whole course. The most important part of receiver. Definition: a closed-loop feedback control system that generates and outputs a signal in relation to the frequency and phase of an input ("reference") signalfeedback A phase-locked loop circuit responds both to the frequency and phase of the input signals, automatically raising or lowering the frequency of a controlled oscillator until it is matched to the reference in both frequency and phase. oscillator

Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) W(t)=w c +ce 0 (t), where w c is the free-running frequency Example

Ideal Model Model –Si=Acos(w c t+  1 (t)), Sv=A v cos(w c t+  c (t)) –Sp=0.5AA v [sin(2w c t+  1 +  c )+sin(  1 -  c )] –So=0.5AA v sin(  1 -  c )=AA v (  1 -  c ) Capture Range and Lock Range LPF VCO

Carrier Acquisition in DSB-SC Signal Squaring method Costas Loop SSB-SC not working

PLL Applications Clock recovery: no pilot Deskewing: circuit design Clock generation: Direct Digital Synthesis Spread spectrum: Jitter Noise Reduction Clock distribution

FM Basics VHF (30M-300M) high-fidelity broadcast Wideband FM, (FM TV), narrow band FM (two-way radio) 1933 FM and angle modulation proposed by Armstrong, but success by 1949. Digital: Frequency Shift Key (FSK), Phase Shift Key (BPSK, QPSK, 8PSK,…) AM/FM: Transverse wave/Longitudinal wave

Angle Modulation vs. AM Summarize: properties of amplitude modulation –Amplitude modulation is linear u just move to new frequency band, spectrum shape does not change. No new frequencies generated. –Spectrum: S(f) is a translated version of M(f) –Bandwidth ≤ 2W Properties of angle modulation –They are nonlinear u spectrum shape does change, new frequencies generated. –S(f) is not just a translated version of M(f) –Bandwidth is usually much larger than 2W

Angle Modulation Pro/Con Application Why need angle modulation? –Better noise reduction –Improved system fidelity Disadvantages –Low bandwidth efficiency –Complex implementations Applications –FM radio broadcast –TV sound signal –Two-way mobile radio –Cellular radio –Microwave and satellite communications

Instantaneous Frequency Angle modulation has two forms - Frequency modulation (FM): message is represented as the variation of the instantaneous frequency of a carrier - Phase modulation (PM): message is represented as the variation of the instantaneous phase of a carrier

Phase Modulation PM (phase modulation) signal

Frequency Modulation FM (frequency modulation) signal (Assume zero initial phase)

FM Characteristics Characteristics of FM signals –Zero-crossings are not regular –Envelope is constant –FM and PM signals are similar

Relations between FM and PM

FM/PM Example (Time)

FM/PM Example (Frequency)

fc=1000; Ac=1; % carrier frequency (Hz) and magnitude fm=250; Am=0.1; % message frequency (Hz) and magnitude k=4; % modulation parameter % generage single tone message signal t=0:1/10000:0.02; % time with sampling at 10KHz mt=Am*cos(2*pi*fm*t); % message signal % Phase modulation sp=Ac*cos(2*pi*fc*t+2*pi*k*mt); % Frequency modulation dmt=Am*sin(2*pi*fm*t); % integration sf=Ac*cos(2*pi*fc*t+2*pi*k*dmt); % PM % Plot the signal subplot(311), plot(t,mt,'b'), grid, title('message m(t)') subplot(312), plot(t,sf,'r'), grid, ylabel('FM s(t)') subplot(313), plot(t,sp,'m'), grid, ylabel('PM s(t)') Matlab

% spectrum w=((0:length(t)-1)/length(t)-0.5)*10000; Pm=abs(fftshift(fft(mt))); % spectrum of message Pp=abs(fftshift(fft(sp))); % spectrum of PM signal Pf=abs(fftshift(fft(sf))); % spectrum of FM signal % plot the spectrums figure(2) subplot(311), plot(w,Pm,'b'), axis([-3000 3000 min(Pm) max(Pm)]), grid, title('message spectrum M(f)'), subplot(312), plot(w,Pf,'r'), axis([-3000 3000 min(Pf) max(Pf)]), grid, ylabel('FM S(f)') subplot(313), plot(w,Pp,'m'), axis([-3000 3000 min(Pp) max(Pp)]), grid, ylabel('PM S(f)') Matlab

Frequency Modulation FM (frequency modulation) signal (Assume zero initial phase)

Example m(t) 0 T 2T Consider m(t)- a square wave- as shown. The FM wave for this m(t) is shown below.

Frequency Deviation Frequency deviation Δf –difference between the maximum instantaneous and carrier frequency –Definition: –Relationship with instantaneous frequency –Question: Is bandwidth of s(t) just 2Δf? No, instantaneous frequency is not equivalent to spectrum frequency (with non-zero power)! S(t) has ∞ spectrum frequency (with non-zero power).

Modulation Index Indicate by how much the modulated variable (instantaneous frequency) varies around its unmodulated level (message frequency) Bandwidth A

Narrow Band Angle Modulation Definition Equation Comparison with AM Only phase difference of Pi/2 Frequency: similar Time: AM: frequency constant FM: amplitude constant Conclusion: NBFM signal is similar to AM signal NBFM has also bandwidth 2W. (twice message signal bandwidth)

Example

Block diagram of a method for generating a narrowband FM signal.

A phasor comparison of narrowband FM and AM waves for sinusoidal modulation. (a) Narrowband FM wave. (b) AM wave.

Wide Band FM Wideband FM signal Fourier series representation

Example

Bessel Function of First Kind

Spectrum of WBFM (Chapter 5.2) Spectrum when m(t) is single-tone Example 2.2

Spectrum Properties <<

Bandwidth of FM Facts –FM has side frequencies extending to infinite frequency  theoretically infinite bandwidth –But side frequencies become negligibly small beyond a point  practically finite bandwidth –FM signal bandwidth equals the required transmission (channel) bandwidth Bandwidth of FM signal is approximately by –Carson’s Rule (which gives lower-bound)

Carson’s Rule Nearly all power lies within a bandwidth of –For single-tone message signal with frequency f m –For general message signal m(t) with bandwidth (or highest frequency) W

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