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Chapter 2 Definition and Classification of Cognitive/Intellectual Disabilities © Taylor & Francis 2015
NAMING, DEFINING, AND CLASSIFYING Naming refers to assigning a specific term or label to a disability. Defining provides a precise description of the meaning and boundaries of a term. Classifying is the identification of subgroups of individuals within a defined group according to some criteria. © Taylor & Francis 2015
EVOLUTION OF THE DEFINITION 1534 Fitz-Hebert 1845 Esquirole 1866 Seguin 1937 Tredgold 1941 Doll © Taylor & Francis 2015
AAMD/AAMR/AAIDD DEFINITIONS The first manual was published in 1921. Manuals followed in 1933, 1941, and 1957. Heber (1959) introduced levels of CIDs based on IQ; 85 was cutoff for “borderline mental retardation”; introduced requirement of adaptive behavior deficit. Adaptive behavior is the ability to deal effectively with personal and social demands and expectations. The average score on a test is known as the mean. Standard deviation (SD) is an indication of the variability of test scores. Approximately 68% of the population will score between + one SD and – one SD of the average score of a test. © Taylor & Francis 2015
AAMD/AAMR/AAIDD DEFINITIONS Grossman (1973) lowered the IQ cutoff from 85 (one standard deviation below average) to 70 (two standard deviations below average). Grossman (1977) introduced clinical judgment to the definition. Clinical judgment is the use of more subjective/additional information to allow more flexibility in interpreting the definition. Grossman (1983) expanded the developmental period from birth to age 18 to conception to age 18 and continued the recommendation of IQ as a guideline only. Luckasson et al. (1992) operationally defined 10 adaptive skill areas and eliminated levels of CIDs based on IQ. Luckasson et al. (2002) retained elimination of levels of CIDs and changed adaptive behavior criteria to include conceptual, social, and practical skills. © Taylor & Francis 2015
AAMD/AAMR/AAIDD DEFINITIONS Schalock et al. (2010) (AAIDD, 2010) retained the 2010 definition but changed the term mental retardation to intellectual disability. ICD-10 and DSM-V are two other current definitions that are sometimes used by organizations around the world and by psychiatric professionals respectively. © Taylor & Francis 2015
CLASSIFICATION Duncan and Millard (1866) used the terms congenital and noncongenital to denote when causes of CIDs occur. Ireland (1898) proposed a more medically oriented system based primarily on biological causes. © Taylor & Francis 2015
CLASSIFICATION Classification by Etiology Heber (1961) identified eight categories. Grossman (1973) included ten categories. Grossman (1983) made minor changes to the 1973 system. Luckasson et al. (1992) grouped etiologic risk factors based on prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal causes. Luckasson et al. (2002) described “etiologic risk factors” similar to the causes listed in the 1992 manual. AAIDD (2010) retained the etiologic risk factors from 2002. © Taylor & Francis 2015
CLASSIFICATION Classification by Mental Ability Alfred Binet had perhaps the greatest influence on intelligence testing. 1905 Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale was translated into English. 1916 Terman revised the test that became the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. Goddard developed a system based on mental age derived from the Binet-Simon Intelligence scale. Wechsler develops the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence scale in 1939. Subsequent Wechsler scales are the most widely used intelligence tests. © Taylor & Francis 2015
CLASSIFICATION Classification by Mental Ability Continued ICD-10 includes IQ guidelines. AAMD/AAMR manuals prior to 1992 used IQ to determine levels of CIDs. AAIDD manual of 2010 emphasizes consideration of personal supports. © Taylor & Francis 2015
CLASSIFICATION Classification by Needs Educational System is a system that has tended to continue to use IQ levels of Mild, IQ approximately 50–75; moderate, IQ approximately 35–50; severe, IQ approximately 20–35; and profound, IQ below 20. Classification by levels of support – Luckasson et al. (1992; 2002) identified four levels of support: intermittent, limited, extensive, and pervasive. AAIDD (2010) emphasizes what supports have or have not been provided are essential in understanding the disability of an individual and how they function in life. © Taylor & Francis 2015
PREVALENCE Incidence is the number of individuals who fall into a category for the first time during a specific time period (usually one year). Prevalence is the total number of individuals who have a condition at a given point in time. Prevalence estimates are about 1% of the population for CIDs. A number of variables affect prevalence including ethnic and socioeconomic status, gender, and age. © Taylor & Francis 2015
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