Presentation on theme: "PRESENTING NEW LANGUAGE STRUCTURE LANGUAGE STUDENTS ARE NOT ABLE TO USE YET LANGUAGE SHOULD BE PRESENTED IN CONTEXT CHARACTERISTICS TYPES SHOWS WHAT LANGUAGE."— Presentation transcript:
PRESENTING NEW LANGUAGE STRUCTURE LANGUAGE STUDENTS ARE NOT ABLE TO USE YET LANGUAGE SHOULD BE PRESENTED IN CONTEXT CHARACTERISTICS TYPES SHOWS WHAT LANGUAGE MEANS AND HOW IT IS USED * THE STUDENTS´ WORLD PHYSICAL SURROUNDINGS SHOULD BE INTEREST FOR STUDENTS THE STUDENTS´ LIVES SHOULD PROVIDE BACKGROUND FOR A LOT OF LANGUAGE USE *THE OUTSIDE WORLD STORIES SIMULATED SITUATIONS OR EXAMPLE of LANGUAGE REAL * THE FORMULATED INFORMATION TIMETABLES SIMULATED NOTES, CHARTS etc OR REAL PRESENTATION of STRUCTURAL FORM by explaining grammar in detail by having students hear and see the new language new language, drawing attention to the grammatical elements of which it is made
TEACHING VOCABULARY SELECTING MORE CONCRETE WORDS AT LOWER LEVELS; ABSTRACT WORDS LATER VOCABULARY CRITERIA FREQUENCY: Most commonly used words are taught first MORE COVERAGE: A word is more useful if it covers more than SCIENTIFIC one meaning ( Computer-based corpus) Decision about what language to teach TOPIC will be assessed in the light of FUNCTION STRUCTURE NEEDS and INTEREST WHAT STUDENTS NEED TO KNOW ABOUT WORDS MEANING IN CONTEXT SENSE RELATIONS WORD USE METAPHOR, IDIOMS, FIXED PHRASES COLLOCATIONS STYLE and REGISTER how words are written and spoken Parts of speech WORD FORMATION refers to how they can change their forms Prefixes /suffixes countable/ uncountable nouns WORD GRAMMAR certain words trigger the use verb complementation/ Phrasal verbs of grammatical patterns position of adjectives /adverbs
TEACHING VOCABULARY is more than presenting words ACTIVE VOCABULARY PASIVE VOCABULARY The one the students have been taught or learnt and which they are expected to use The one which the students will recognize but which they will not be able to produce THE STATUS OF VOCABULARY IS NOT PERMANENT INTERACTION WITH WORDS DISCOVERY TECHNIQUES Students can remember words best when they have done something with the words they are learning Students work out rules and meaning for themselves Examples: -Match the words and the pictures using a bilingual dictionary - Vocabulary networks - expand a newspaper headline with specific vocabulary students have been learning.
DIFFERENT FORMS OF PRESENTING VOCABULARY REALIA PICTURES MIME, ACTION and GESTURE Actions in particular can be better explained by mime CONTRAST Sense relations of words can be used to explain meaning ( opposites, synonyms etc) ENUMERATION Relation between general and specific words ( clothes and shirt) EXPLANATION at intermediate levels. TRANSLATION quick and easy way. Disadvantages it is not always easy to translate wordsl it may discourage ss from interacting with words.
TEACHING PRONUNCIATION HELPS STUDENTS TO GET OVER INTELLIGIBILITY PROBLEMS PERFECTION VERSUS INTELLIGIBILITY Students´ degree of perfection depends on their attitude to how well they speak and hear. psychological issues INTELLIGIBILITY PRIME GOAL SOME SOUNDS HAVE TO BE RIGHT IF THE SPEAKER WANTS TO GET HIS MESSAGE ACROSS. USUAL PROBLEMS What students can hear DIFFICULTY WHEN HEARING PRONUNCIATION FEATURES EAR TRAINING The Intonation problem DIFFICULTY TO HEAR TUNES / RISING or FALLING TONES PHONEMIC ALPHABET if students can`t recognize the different phonemes REASON FOR USING IT dictionaries give the pronunciation of words in phonemic symbols
When to teach PRONUNCIATION: WHOLE CLASSES DISCREET SLOTS OPPORTUNISTIC TEACHING PRONUNCIATION IS NOT A SEPARATE SKILL : IT IS PART OF THE WAY WE SPEAK EXAMPLES of PRONUNCIATION TEACHING WORKING WITH SOUNDS FOCUS ON A PARTICULAR SOUND CONTRASTING TWO SIMILAR SOUNDS USING A “PHONEMIC CHART ADRIAN UNDERHILL WORKING WITH STRESS SHIFTING STRESS IN A PHRASE OF SENTENCE CAN CHANGE EMPHASIS OR MEANING MARKING STRESS: BY UNDERLYING : tremble BY USING A STRESS SQUARE : tremendous BY USING A STRESS MARK BEFORE THE STRESSED SYLLABLE : trans´parent BY WRITING THE STRESS PATTERNS : photography