2 Describe some early management examples Describe some early management examples. Explain the various theories in the classical approach. Discuss the development and uses of the behavioral approach. Describe the quantitative approach. Explain the various theories in the contemporary approach.
3 Early ManagementAncient Management - Egypt (pyramids) and China (Great Wall)
4 Early Management Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations in 1776 Division of labor (job specialization) - the breakdown of jobs into narrow and repetitive tasks.Industrial RevolutionSubstituted machine power for human laborCreated large organizations in need of management
6 Classical ApproachClassical approach - first studies of management, which emphasized rationality and making organizations and workers as efficient as possible
7 Scientific Management Fredrick Winslow TaylorThe “father” of scientific managementScientific management - an approach that involves using the scientific method to find the “one best way” for a job to be done.
22 Contemporary Approaches System - a set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole.Closed system - systems that are not influenced by and do not interact with their environmentOpen system - systems that interact with their environment
24 The Contingency Approach Contingency approach - a management approach that recognizes organizations as different, which means they face different situations (contingencies) and require different ways of managing
26 Review Learning Outcome MH-1 Describe some early management examples.Early examples of management practice in the construction of the Egyptian pyramidsAdam Smith’s Wealth of Nations argued the benefits of division of laborIn the industrial revolution where it became more economical to manufacture in factories than at home
27 Review Learning Outcome MH-2 Explain the various theories in the classical approach.Frederick W. Taylor studied manual work using scientific principlesThe Gilbreths’ studies efficient hand-and-body motionsFayol believed the functions of management were common to all business endeavors
28 Review Learning Outcome MH-2 (cont.) Fayol developed 14 principles of managementWeber described an ideal type of organization he called a bureaucracy
29 Review Learning Outcome MH-3 Discuss the development and uses of the behavioral approach.Early OB advocates believed that people were the most important asset of the organization and should be managed accordingly.The Hawthorne Studies dramatically affected management beliefs about the role of people in organizations
30 Review Learning Outcome MH-4 Describe the quantitative approach.The quantitative approach involves applications of statistics, optimization models, information models, and computer simulations to management activities.Total quality management—a management philosophy devoted to continual improvement and responding to customer needs and expectations—also makes use of quantitative methods to meet its goals
31 Review Learning Outcome MH-5 Explain the various theories in the contemporary approach.The systems approach says that an organization takes in inputs (resources) from the environment and transforms them into outputs that are distributed into the environmentThe contingency approach says that organizations are different, face different situations, and require different ways of managing