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Chapter 7 Lesson 1 Air and Weather & Lesson 4 ClimatePages ,
1. The blanket of air surrounding Earth is called the atmosphere.
2. The atmosphere is made up mostly of nitrogen and oxygen.
3. The four layers of Earth’s atmosphere, from lowest to highest, are troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere.
All of Earth’s life exists in the troposphereAll of Earth’s life exists in the troposphere. It is also where all of Earth’s weather takes place.
4. The condition of the atmosphere at a given time and place is called weather. *The four properties of weather are temperature, humidity, air pressure, and precipitation.
5. When you measure how hot or cold something is, you measure its temperature. Three factors that affect air temperature include time of day or night, the season and closeness to oceans.
Air has weight to it. The force of air pushing on an area is called air pressure.
6. Warm air particles are less dense or packed together, than cold air.
**8. As air cools, the air pressure increases.
Cool air has higher air pressure than warmer airCool air has higher air pressure than warmer air. (Cooler air weighs more than warmer air.) Air moves from an area of higher pressure to lower pressure.
9. Moving air is called wind.
10. Air moves when the Sun’s energy heats the air.
**7. A measure of the amount of moisture in the air is humidity.
11. Any form of water that falls from the clouds is precipitation11. Any form of water that falls from the clouds is precipitation. The term includes rain, snow, sleet, and hail.
12. Scientists collect data from a weather station.
13. To measure rainfall, scientists collect rain in a tube called a rain gauge.
14. A tool used to measure air pressure is called a barometer.
over a long period of time.Weather changes day to day, even hour to hour. But climate is the pattern of weather in a place over a long period of time.
Pennsylvania has a temperate climatePennsylvania has a temperate climate. It doesn’t get extremely hot or cold.
Pennsylvania’s location on Earth affects its climate.
Elevation also affects the climate in an area.
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