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Factors Affecting Reactions

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Presentation on theme: "Factors Affecting Reactions"— Presentation transcript:

1 Factors Affecting Reactions
Chapter 14

2 Chemical Kinetics Area of chemistry involved with the speeds, or rates, of chemical reactions How fast can reactants be converted to products Reaction rate= the change in the concentration (measured in molarity) divided by the time interval The longer the reaction takes, the slower the rate

3 Factors that Affect Reaction Rate
Concentration In most reactions, as concentration increases, the frequency at which molecules collide increases.

4 Beer’s Law Spectroscopic determination of concentration using absorbance of light can be used to tell how a concentration changes over time

5 2. Temperature Generally, as temperature increases, so does the reaction rate. Increasing the T increases the avg. KE of the molecules which would makes molecules move and collide more frequently 5

6 3. Physical State of the Reactants
Reactants must come together to react in the correct orientation (right parts of molecules must collide) Reactions are limited by the area of contact between colliding particles Increasing surface area, increases the rate of the reaction

7 The Collision Model In a chemical reaction, bonds are broken and new bonds are formed. Molecules can only react if they collide with each other. Furthermore, molecules must collide with the correct orientation and with enough energy to cause bond breakage and formation. 7

8 Activation Energy In other words, there is a minimum amount of energy required for reaction: the activation energy, Ea. Just as a ball cannot get over a hill if it does not roll up the hill with enough energy, a reaction cannot occur unless the molecules possess sufficient energy to get over the activation energy barrier. 8

9 Reaction Coordinate Diagrams
It is helpful to visualize energy changes throughout a process on a reaction coordinate diagram like this one for the rearrangement of methyl isonitrile. 9

10 Reaction Coordinate Diagrams
It shows the energy of the reactants and products (and, therefore, E). The high point on the diagram is the transition state. The species present at the transition state is called the activated complex. The energy gap between the reactants and the activated complex is the activation energy barrier. 10

11 Maxwell–Boltzmann Distributions
Temperature is defined as a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a sample. At any temperature there is a wide distribution of kinetic energies. 11

12 Maxwell–Boltzmann Distributions
As the temperature increases, the curve flattens and broadens. Thus at higher temperatures, a larger population of molecules has higher energy. 12

13 Maxwell–Boltzmann Distributions
If the dotted line represents the activation energy, as the temperature increases, so does the fraction of molecules that can overcome the activation energy barrier. As a result, the reaction rate increases. 13

14 Maxwell–Boltzmann Distributions
This fraction of molecules can be found through the expression where R is the gas constant and T is the Kelvin temperature. f = e−Ea/RT 14

15 Arrhenius Equation Svante Arrhenius developed a mathematical relationship between k (rate constant) and Ea (Activation Energy): k = A e−Ea/RT where A is the frequency factor, a number that represents the likelihood that collisions would occur with the proper orientation for reaction. 15

16 Arrhenius Equation k = A e−Ea/RT
Rate increases as activation energy is decreased Rate increases as temperature increases

17 4. Catalysts Catalysts increase the rate of a reaction by decreasing the activation energy of the reaction. Catalysts change the mechanism by which the process occurs. 17

18 Catalysts One way a catalyst can speed up a reaction is by holding the reactants together and helping bonds to break. 18

19 Enzymes Enzymes are catalysts in biological systems.
The substrate fits into the active site of the enzyme much like a key fits into a lock. Fits because of intermolecular forces between reactants and enzyme Lowers the activation energy Or creates new reaction intermediates 19

20 Function of Enzymes Since many enzymes are large biomolecules, the intermolecular forces within it impact it’s functionality Enzymes must be in correct shape to work correctly Noncovalent interactions (hydrogen bonds, dispersion, dipole-dipole forces) impact shape and how well an enzyme can increase chemical reaction rates

21 Other forms of catalysis
Acid-base catalysis Reactant either gains or loses a proton, changing the rate of the reaction Surface catalysis Either a new reaction intermediate is formed, or the probability of successful collisions is modified

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