Labour “in labour” …..when uterine contractions reach sufficient strength, duration and frequency to cause effacement and dilatation of the cervix.
Normal labour takes place at term. -a single fetus -presents by the vertex and -the delivery, followed by that of the placenta and membranes, -is accomplished with in 4-24 hours, -with out artificial aid and without complication.
Possible causes for the onset of labour include: -fetal pressure on the uterine wall -increasing tension on the uterine wall -changes in hormonal balance (fetal adrenal cortex) http://markgibsonphoto.com/images/N273W02W.JPG
Signs of labour for a pregnant woman -regular contractions increasing in strength, duration and frequency. -show (bloody mucus plug around cervix) -rupture of the membranes (amniotic fluid escapes)
Terms used during labour: -contractions: shortening of the uterine muscle fibres. -during labour increase in strength duration and frequency -strength: increase in intensity -duration: from the beginning of a contraction to the end of that contraction. -frequency: from the beginning of one contraction to the beginning of the next.
The cervix during labour: -effacement: or taking up of the cervix. -the cervix becomes part of the lower uterine segment and flat -dilatation of the cervix -the external os of the cervix increases in diameter to full dilatation =10 cms.
The mechanisms of labour Briefly outline the “mechanisms” of labour ( note only a general understanding is needed) -a series of passive movements of the fetus in its passage through the birth canal. -
pelvis: -inlet / outlet differing in size and shape -curve at the lower end.(Curve Of Carus) -cylindrical
Stages of Labour Stage one: from the onset of regular contractions to full dilatation of the cervix Stage two: from full dilatation of the cervix to the birth of the baby
Stage three: from the birth of the baby to the delivery of the placenta. Stage four: from the delivery of the placenta and membranes to 1-4 hours after the baby’s birth
-average duration First stage -primigravida = 10-12 hours -multigravida = 1-2 hours Second stage -primgravida =1-2 hours -multi gravida =½ hour Third stage: -average duration ½ hour (with ecbolic drugs = 5 minutes)
Factors which may influence a woman’s experience of labour include: -previous experiences -tiredness -dehydration -position of the baby -environment -support people -
Nursing actions during labour to observe and record the maternal and fetal physical condition -blood pressure -pulse -temperature - urine output amount and urinalysis -vaginal loss (blood, mucus, amniotic fluid -contractions -pain -general wellbeing
Nursing actions to assist a woman’s pain management during labour. -distraction techniques -breathing techniques -music -counting -conversation -massage - - -
Nursing actions: -assist with hygiene needs, bath, back rubs, change the bed linen, cold flannels to forehead, heat packs………. -remind re elimination needs -support her support person -stay with her -give feedback re the progress of her labour and her fetus -encourage……………..