Presentation on theme: "Session 8: Strategies to reduce violence"— Presentation transcript:
1 Session 8: Strategies to reduce violence Human RelationshipsSession 8: Strategies to reduce violence
2 Today’s Learning Outcomes Discuss relative effectiveness of two strategies for reducing violenceWhat the command terms mean…Discuss: Offer a considered and balanced review that includes a range of arguments,factors or hypotheses. Opinions or conclusions should be presented clearlyand supported by appropriate evidence.
3 Strategies for reducing violence Olweus Bullying Prevention Programme (OBPP)Metropolitan Area Child Study (MACS) for prevention of aggressive behaviour & violence in childrenIf the question explicitly states TWO strategies be sure to discuss TWO otherwise you will only score a maximum of 11/22 for essay!
4 Strategies for reducing violence Olweus Bullying Prevention Programme (OBPP)
5 Olweus Bullying Prevention Programme Programme is universal i.e. it includes all staff, parents and students in schoolThe aim is to change the school environment as a whole while targeting individual studentsTeachers receive training so that they are equipped with the skills to recognise and deal with bullying and implement cooperative learning strategies within the classroom.
6 Olweus Bullying Prevention Programme Also includes supervision of playgrounds and lunchroomStudents fill out questionnaires with the aim of identifying bullies in elementary, middle and high schoolAims to help both bullies and their victimsAdults should be positive role models and set firm limits to unacceptable behaviour
8 Longitudinal study on the effect of OBPP on bullying Olweus (1993)Longitudinal study on the effect of OBPP on bullyingStudy was conducted in Bergen area of Norway after 3 adolescents has committed suicide as a result of bullyingSample of 2500 children from 5th-8th grade participated in OBPP for 2 yearsData collection took place through observations and questionnaires for teachers & students
9 Olweus (1993)ResultsShowed an overall improvement of 50% reduction in self-reported bullying incidents and a general improvement of social climate in classroomsStudents’ self reports showed:Higher satisfaction with school lifeImproved order and disciplineMore positive social relationshipsMore positive attitudes towards school & schoolwork in generalResults indicate that OBPP has a higher level of effectiveness
11 Olweus (1993)Longitudinal study so was able to review effectiveness of programme over period of yearsOnly generalisable to students in 5th-8th grade in NorwayIssues with self report data for bullying. Lack of honesty among bullies? Victims reluctant to report bullying?Impact of suicides of bullied teens may have increased awareness of bullying regardless of programme and may be to account for reported improvements
12 Black (2007) Study on implementation of OBPP in US Participants were 13 inner city schools in one urban school districtProgramme ran for 4 years but only 9 schools completedResults showed that not all schools followed programme as it is intended (only 48% fidelity to programme)
13 Black (2007)Observed bullying incidents decreased 25.5% in all schoolsOn average students’ self reported bullying incidents increased from 39-43% in the 4 years BUT schools that had implemented the programme most rigorously actually had a decrease in self reported bullying incidents
14 Black (2007)Black argued that the mixed results in terms of reduction of bullying could be due to less rigorous implementation, lack of resources and cultural differences between Norway & USA.OBPP was developed in Norway where social responsibility for all is a core value.This value is perhaps difficult to translate into the American culture of individual independence
16 Black (2007) Provides cross cultural data on effectiveness of OBPP Due to large drop out rate and lack of proper implementation in some schools it is unclear whether programme is effective in US, however, schools that followed programme did report decrease in self reported bullying incidentsProgramme implementation in all schools led to an increase in supervision of students which could possibly account for decrease in bullying rather than the programme itself
17 OBPPResearch in Norway has suggested that this programme is effective.However, research conducted in the US had mixed results.Unclear whether this programme can be used universally or is more suited to Norwegian culture where shared social responsibility is emphasized
18 Strategies for reducing violence Metropolitan Area Child Study (MACS) for prevention of aggressive behaviour & violence in children
19 Metropolitan Area Child Study (MACS) for prevention of aggressive behaviour & violence in children Programme consists of:A classroom programme with focus of empathy training and social problem-solving skillsTraining in social skills which takes place in small group sessions where students meet and discuss peer relations and adequate social problem-solving strategiesFamily counseling which take place in small groups with other families. The meetings start with lessons and then families discuss specific issues in relation to family-specific problems
20 MACS research group (2002)Aim: to investigate whether violence prevention could reduce aggression and violenceProcedure:Longitudinal quasi experimental field study2181 elementary students classified as high risk from 2 inner city areas in Midwest of USAIntervention ran over 8 yearsParticipants mostly belonged to ethnic minority groups and many were poor
21 MACS research group (2002) Procedure: Quasi experimental field study consisted of 4 conditions:Control group- no interventionFull programmeOnly classroom programmeClassroom programme and social skills training programme for high risk children
22 MACS research group (2002) Results Overall there was no effect of the programme on overall levels of aggression but there was an impact in some of the subgroups:Students who had participated in full programme either early or late and came from low risk schools showed less aggression compared to control groupStudents from high risk schools showed a higher level of aggression after the programme compared to the control groupStudy showed that early intervention is most effective is fully programme is offered.
24 Guerra et al (2006) Reviewed relative effectiveness of MACS Suggest that:Normally aggressive behaviour has negative consequences in peer groups but it seems that some aggressive children are able to maintain a popular status among peersThey found that:Youth who began the MACS late intervention programme and already had high levels of popularity were able to increase in aggressiveness while in the programme
25 Guerra et al (2006)According to Guerra: if aggression is seen as normal (normative) in the peer group (e.g. because you live in a violent neighbourhood) and it pays off (e.g. increased attention from teachers and increased peer status) it is likely to continue in spite of an intervention programme
26 Guerra et al (2006)There are problems is precise measurement of effectiveness of programmeMost effect studies look at average scores (e.g. how many children become delinquent) but do not include how various factors could affect outcomes for different groupsThis means that programme may be effective sometimes and with particular groups but may not be effective in other situations
27 Relative effectiveness of school based programmes Seems that school based strategies to reduce violence are not always very effectiveIt is probably because violence is a complex phenomenon that must be addressed at social, cultural, individual and socioeconomic levelsIt is necessary to look at what works when and with whom as well as when it does not work (Guerra et al, 2006)
28 Relative effectiveness of school based programmes Ferguson et al (2007) performed meta analysis of school based anti bullying programmes and found that overall they were not very effective in reducing bullying and violent behaviours within schoolsThe programmes that target at-risk youth were slightly more effective.Lack of effectiveness could be because bullies may use bullying to climb social dominance hierarchy at expense of others and that bullying intervention programmes offer no incentives for bullies