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Harbin Institute of Technology (Weihai) 1 Chapter 2 Channel Measurement and simulation  2.1 Introduction  Experimental and simulation techniques  The.

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Presentation on theme: "Harbin Institute of Technology (Weihai) 1 Chapter 2 Channel Measurement and simulation  2.1 Introduction  Experimental and simulation techniques  The."— Presentation transcript:

1 Harbin Institute of Technology (Weihai) 1 Chapter 2 Channel Measurement and simulation  2.1 Introduction  Experimental and simulation techniques  The advantage of experimental methods: all system and channel parameters affecting the propagation of UWB signals are accounted for without preassumptions. (disadvantage: expensive, time consuming, and limited by the characteristics of available equipment, such as sensitivity, bandwidth, dispersion, and the attenuation of the connecting cables.)  Simulation are free from the limitations of experimental approaches, cost effective, and less time consuming. The accuracy of simulation results depends on the amount of details included in the simulation model. More details lead to more complex computer programs, and require more computational time.

2 Harbin Institute of Technology (Weihai) 2  Narrowband wireless communication system and UWB  In NB systems, the information signal modulates a very high frequency sinusoidal carrier; thus, along each propagation path the signal suffers very little distortion because the system elements such as antennas, reflecting walls, diffracting objects in the channel, and so on, have essentially constant electromagnetic over the narrow bandwidth of the radiated signal. The only signal degradation is caused by multipath components.  In UWB systems, the signal may suffer significant distortion due to the transmitting/receiving antennas not meeting the necessary bandwidth requirements, and also due to the dispersive behavior of building materials in the propagation channel. Multipath components are also present in UWB channels. But UWB do not suffer fading due to the destructive interference of multipath components.

3 Harbin Institute of Technology (Weihai) 3 2.2 Measurement Techniques  Time Domain & Frequency domain  2.2.1 Time Domain Measurement Techniques  Ideal dirac-delta excitation signal  impulse response  Very short duration pulses Time domain channel measurement Pulse generator, digital sampling oscilloscope, transmitting and receiving antennas, triggering signal generator

4 Harbin Institute of Technology (Weihai) 4

5 5  Problem: How to synchronize the transmitting and receiving sides?  A: use a sample of the radiated pulse captured by means of a small antenna situated close to the transmitting antenna to trigger the sampling oscilloscope.  B: use a triggering generator with two outputs to synchronize the transmitter and the receiver.

6 Harbin Institute of Technology (Weihai) 6  Two categories of noise  Narrowband noise: interference from nearby narrowband systems  eliminate ( FFT  bandpass filter  IFFT)  Wideband noise: random short pulses that are not repetitive  reduce (averaging multiple acquisitions)

7 Harbin Institute of Technology (Weihai) 7  Sampling and triggering issues  Period T, N sampling points/T  Problem: How to sampling and triggering with a low frequency?

8 Harbin Institute of Technology (Weihai) 8 2.2.2 Frequency Domain Measurement Techniques  Based on measurements at different frequency points using a sweep harmonic( 谐波 ) generator  Chief advantage: improved measurement precision  A complex transfer function value described by its magnitude and phase terms  inverse Fourier transform  impulse response of the channel  Vector network analyzer (VNA) & scalar network analyzer (SNA)

9 Harbin Institute of Technology (Weihai) 9 Scalar frequency domain measurement 1. only the magnitude of the transfer function is measured. 2. both magnitude and phase information are required to enable the conversion of the frequency domain data to the time domain impulse response. 3. retrieving the phase information from the magnitude (Hilbert Transform) becomes an integral part of this approach.

10 Harbin Institute of Technology (Weihai) 10  Direct Measurement of magnitude and phase  Obtain the complex frequency domain transfer function directly

11 Harbin Institute of Technology (Weihai) 11  Direct Measurement of magnitude and phase (continued)  Long coaxial cables  cable losses increase “exponentially”  Overcome this drawback: electro-optic transmission system

12 Harbin Institute of Technology (Weihai) 12 2.3 Measurement results  Typical results for time domain measurements  In modern laboratory and office  USC (University of Southern California) group used a quasi omni-directional diamond antenna  VT (Virginia Tech) group used directive TEM horn antennas, as well as omni-directional biconical antennas

13 Harbin Institute of Technology (Weihai) 13 Fig. 2.9 Diagram of office building where propagation measurements of the USC group were performed. The concentric circles are centered on the transmitting antenna and are spaced at 1m intervals.

14 Harbin Institute of Technology (Weihai) 14 Signal distortion introduced by different antennas

15 Harbin Institute of Technology (Weihai) 15 3points: Distance? Noise?

16 Harbin Institute of Technology (Weihai) 16 Zoomed profile for multipath

17 Harbin Institute of Technology (Weihai) 17  Typical results for frequency domain measurements  Results are based on amplitude measurements and the use of the Hilbert Transform for phase calculations.  Over a frequency range of 100MHz to nearly 12GHz.  Responses are characterized by multiple peaks and valleys formed due to constructive and destructive interference of multipath components.  Signals for NLOS scenario vary more rapidly with frequency.

18 Harbin Institute of Technology (Weihai) 18 Typical frequency domain responses (LOS, TEM horn antenna) Typical frequency domain responses (NLOS, TEM horn antenna)

19 Harbin Institute of Technology (Weihai) 19 2.4 Electromagnetic simulation  Simulation of transmitting and receiving antennas  Simulation of the UWB channel

20 Harbin Institute of Technology (Weihai) 20 Comparison of Measured (Solid Line) and Simulated (Dashed Line)

21 Harbin Institute of Technology (Weihai) 21 Bibliography

22 Harbin Institute of Technology (Weihai) 22

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