Presentation on theme: "Outcomes Research on School Counseling Interventions and Programs"— Presentation transcript:
1 Outcomes Research on School Counseling Interventions and Programs CHAPTER 6
2 IntroductionAlthough professional school counselors may believe certain approaches are effective, others, such as school board members, administrators, parents, and legislators, want documented evidence of the effectiveness of school counseling.Many of these individuals not only want confirmation that school counseling services are beneficial to students, but also that these services are cost effective.
3 IntroductionThe U.S. Department of Education made it a goal to transform education into an evidence-based field.Outcome research in professional school counseling analyzes whether school counseling programs or components of a program result in positive outcomes for students.
4 IntroductionCounselors are ethically bound to provide effective services to their clients, and without thorough knowledge of the research, counselors will not know what has been shown to be the “best.”
5 Is Professional School Counseling Effective? School counseling outcomes research is generally based on qualitative reviews and meta-analytic techniques.Results from qualitative reviews are generally supportive about the effectiveness of school counseling.Substantial impact on educational and personal development.If results from meta-analytic results are coalesced there is support that school counseling interventions are moderately to highly effective.Results from both qualitative and meta-analytic techniques are based on a limited number of studies.
6 Which students benefit from school counseling interventions? Effectiveness of school counseling at different school levels is somewhat mixed and is probably related to differences in interventions used at different levels.Who uses school-based counseling services most often?African American studentsStudents who display early onset mental health and educational problemsStudents who possess externalizing or educational difficultiesAfrican American males were more likely to seek school counseling to help with academic achievement than White students.
7 Which students benefit? It is less important to figure out who benefits than how professional school counselors can deliver a school counseling program effectively to all students.
8 What Are Effective Methods for Delivering School Counseling Programs? Professional school counselors must implement a comprehensive school counseling program for all students that is a systematic component of the larger school’s purpose and mission.
9 School Counseling Core Curriculum Although much of the research is on elementary guidance curriculum, it seems middle school students benefited most from guidance curriculum offerings with an effect size of .46.High school students benefited with an effect size of .39.Elementary students benefited with an effect size of .31.
10 School Counseling Core Curriculum Elementary counselors primarily used the guidance curriculum to address personal/affective needs.Elementary guidance lessons which focused on improving self-esteem and self-concept had limited impact on students’ self-esteem.Schlossberg, Morris, and Lieberman (2001) found that counselor-led, developmental guidance units presented in 9th grade classrooms have the potential to improve students' expressed behavior and general school attitudes, while also addressing student developmental needs.
11 Individual Student Planning Only 10 studies of individual planning have been conducted, mostly with high school students.Overall weighted effect size was statistically significant.Professional school counselors often design individual planning around educational and career/vocational planning.
12 Individual Student Planning Parents and students indicate that they would like more emphasis on career guidance and development activities.Meta-analyses differ somewhat on the degree to which career interventions are effective.The first meta-analysis (Oliver & Spokane, 1988) indicated career interventions were highly effective, whereas the meta-analysis of more current research (Whiston et al., 1998) found career interventions to be moderately effective.
13 Individual Student Planning A recent study found that “counselor-free” interventions are not effective, and interventions that involve a counselor are significantly more efficacious (Whiston, Brecheisen, & Stephens, 2003).Whiston et al. (1998) found that career interventions were more effective at the junior/high middle school level than at the high school level.Career development activities seem to be generally effective.
14 Responsive ServicesIt seems elementary children, in particular, benefit from responsive services.Few findings have been conducted with adolescents.
15 Individual and Group Counseling Group interventions seemed to be more effective than individual counseling, however few studies have been conducted of the effectiveness of individual counseling in schools.Littrell, Malia, and Vanderwood (1995) concluded that three approaches to brief individual counseling were effective with secondary students.In a meta-analysis of the effects of school-based programs on aggressive behavior, Wilson, Lipsey, and Derson (2003) found that behavioral counseling approaches showed the largest effects.
16 Individual and Group Counseling A substantial number of studies verified the positive effects of group counseling interventions.Support for group counseling was mostly found with elementary students.Much more research needs to be conducted with secondary students.
17 Bullying and Violence Prevention Programs In recent studies of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, Olweus (2005) found reductions in bullying behavior which approached around 50%.Some of the initial studies of the implementation of the Bullybusters program found a 20% reduction in the number of bullying incidents reported in the first year.In a study of the effectiveness of the PeaceBuilders program, Flannery et al. noted significantly higher ratings of social competence among K-2 students who received the intervention and moderately higher levels of social competence for students receiving the intervention in grades 3-5.
18 School- Based Alcohol and Drug Programs The National Registry of Effective Prevention Programs (NREPP) is a list of over 150 substance abuse programs recommended by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.Studies on school-based substance abuse prevention programs have shown important criteria to include: community components and peer leaders.
19 Suicide PreventionSuicide is the 3rd leading cause of death among young people (NIMH, 2012)Studies have shown that students who participate in suicide prevention and intervention programs, such as Signs of Suicide (SOS), to report 40% fewer suicide attempts.“Gatekeepers” trained in QPR reported a significant increase (14%) in questioning youth about suicide.
20 Peer MediationAlthough many studies indicated that those who participated in peer mediation programs have substantial knowledge of the program, they did not indicate the effectiveness on reducing conflict.Wilson et al. (2003) found that peer mediation programs had a small impact on reducing aggressive behavior.There does not seem to be conclusive empirical support for peer mediation programs.
21 Parent Education and Family Counseling Many studies indicate that parent and educational family counseling is extremely effective.There is some evidence that with low achieving and underachieving students, the effectiveness of counseling is significantly related to the amount of parental involvement in the process.This is an important time for professional school counselors to take a role in parent education and family counseling.
22 System SupportThere is growing empirical support for the effectiveness of consultation activities.Consultation can lead to more students being referred for school counseling.
23 Does a Fully Implemented School Counseling Program Make a Difference? According to Lapan, Gysbers, and Sun (1997),students from schools with more fully implemented programs were more likely to report that:(a) they had earned higher grades;(b) their education better prepared them for the future;(c) they had more career and college information available to them; and(d) their schools had a more positive environment.Many other studies showed consistent results.
24 Does a Fully Implemented School Counseling Program Make a Difference? Schools with higher counselor-to-student ratios were more likely to have higher numbers of students with recurring disciplinary problems.There is increasing research that demonstrates that lower professional school counselor-to- student ratios positively influence a number of student outcomes.
25 ConclusionReviews of outcome research in professional school counseling generally indicate that school counseling activities have a positive effect on students.More research needs to be conducted about the effectiveness of professional school counseling.