3 Topic: “Curriculum development at elementary and secondary level in Pakistan”
4 Index Introduction Curriculum development at elementary level IndexIntroductionCurriculum development at elementary levelProcess at elementary levelCurriculum Development at Secondary LevelProcess at Secondary levelImplementationPitfalls of Curriculum
5 What is Curriculum? Curriculum is defined as a script of education Curriculum is a set of subjects.Curriculum is content.Curriculum is a sequence of courses.
7 Curriculum development at Elementary level In Pakistan
8 Curriculum development at elementary level Federal Ministry of Education is responsible for the national cohesion, integration and preservation of the ideological foundation of the states.
9 Responsibilities Curriculum Syllabus Planning Policy Federal Ministry of Education is responsible in making of:CurriculumSyllabusPlanningPolicyEducation standards
10 Sub wings National Bureau of Curriculum and Textbooks (NBTC) Provincial curriculum CentreSupervise curriculum and textbooks.Approves and maintain curriculum standards from the primary to the higher secondary levelsPreparingPublishingDistributingMarketing school textbooks
12 Development ProcessCurriculum development consist of following steps.1. Curriculum objectives. 2. Development of scheme of studies. 3. Development of syllabus of each subject. 4. Development of textbook, instructional material. 5. Approval of textual material. 6. Teacher training.
13 Developing Objectives Objectives are derived fromNational Level SeminarsRecommendation of the National Education PolicyResearch studiesInter Board Committee of Chairmen
14 2. The studies scheme It is based on three key factors: The national education policyMarket demandGlobal issues
15 3. Development of syllabus It is based on objectives and scheme of study. Subject specific syllabi is prepared in consultation with: > Subject expert > Psychologist > Serving teacherSyllabi must satisfy the following conditions:Based on the needs of learner.Content should be focused on attaining the objectives
16 4. Textbook Development > Establish a list of text book writers. Provincial Text Book Boards (PTBB) are responsible for the development of the text-books according to the approved syllabi.How textbook is developed?> Establish a list of text book writers.> Invitations are sent to the writers to submit the material within the syllabus parameter.> Selection is made on the basis of relevance of material.> The selected material is transformed into a textbook.
17 5. Review the Approval Textbooks review parameters National review committee comprises on five or six members:> At least one expert form the syllabus Formulation Committee.> Two subject experts.> Two school teachersTextbooks review parametersThe books truly reflects the curriculum.It meets the objectives stated in the curriculum.Book does not contain any material against Islamic and Pakistani ideology.In case of approval, textbook is sent for publishing and distribution.In case of objection, complaints are relayed with revision recommendations.
18 6. Teacher Training Teacher training for curriculum implementation is the responsibility of the provincial government.It is now stressed that each textbook must have a teacher's guide.In some cases assistance in the training of the masters trainers is provided to provincial government.
19 Curriculum development at Secondary level In Pakistan
20 Curriculum development at Secondary level Federal Government took the responsibility to determine thecurriculum text boards,policy,planning and standards of education
21 Sub wing Higher Education Commission In December, 1976 Federal Government appointed University Grant commission (now HEC ) as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work at bachelor level and onwards It also look after the degrees, certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges, universities and other institutions of HEC
23 Steps Involved In Curriculum Process PHASE-I : Curricula under consideration. PHASE - II : Circulation of the draft curriculum
24 PHASE-I (Curricula under consideration. ) Step 1 The Vice-Chancellors of all public and private sector universities are requested to nominate their representatives, for appointment o National Curriculum Revision Committee (NCRC).Step 2The existing curricula is circulated amongst the members of NCRC to discuss it with their colleagues and bring collective proposals for review and revision of existing curriculaStep 3NCRC meeting-I:
25 PHASE – II (Circulation Of The Draft Curriculum) Step 4 The first draft prepared is circulated among the universities, institutions and organization and is viewed for its further improvement.Step 5 NCRC meeting-II: The second meeting of the NCRC is held to finalize the draft of the revised curriculum in the light of comments/suggestions/recommendations received from the institutions all over the country. Step 6 The final draft curriculum is submitted to the Vice-Chancellors’ Committee for approval.
26 ImplementationThe curricula designed is printed and sent to universities/institutions for its adoption/implementation after the approval of the Authority.
27 Curriculum Development Pitfall There are several obstacles affecting the quality and effectiveness of curriculum development process in Pakistan.Lack of subject area expert.Textbook often do not reflect the curriculumLack of follow-up of actual curriculum implementationCurriculum often different from the official curriculum documentation