Presentation on theme: "Gender equality - some notes on the efficiency argument Barbro-Ingegerd Wickman-Parak Svefi, Haparanda, Sweden."— Presentation transcript:
Gender equality - some notes on the efficiency argument Barbro-Ingegerd Wickman-Parak Svefi, Haparanda, Sweden
Gender equality matters in its own right… …but is also ”smart economics” because it can enhance economic efficiency The labour force and its productivity essential for economic growth and welfare Several studies show that gender gaps in entrepreneurship and labor force participation reduce per capita income significantly
To begin with, some illustrative facts Women earned on average 16 percent less than men, in EU 2013 2 out of 3 managers are men 2 out of 3 clerical workers are women At EU-level women employment rate was 62,6 per cent, one third of them working part-time For men employment rate was 74,2 percent, less than 10 per cent part-time Source: Eurostat
Women work in less paid sectors and work more part-time …. … effects the pension gap
Average Pension gap on total pension income 2011 Source OECD
EU growth strategy adopted 2010 Important goal: Every member country should strive to increase the employment rate for men and women to 75 per cent in 2020. Norway and Sweden have passed the goal, other Nordic countries are well on there way and the Baltic States have still a way to go (source OECD)
Government action needed to create a level playing field
Tax system very crucial… Sweden abolished joint taxation in 1971, employment rate for women increased from 50 to 70 per cent in less than a couple of decades. Several EU-countries still have variations of joint taxation (Germany, France, Poland, Estonia among others)
… as is child care High quality, subsidized, child care available to everyone Expansion of child care beginning around 1970 in Sweden Has, together with tax reform, had very postive effect on female labour force participation in Sweden
Important to illustrate ”the state of the play”. Statistics a valuable tool. Reliable international sources : World Economic Forum: The Global Gender Gap Report Eurostat OECD International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Creating a level playing field How much should be regulated in detail, how much should be left to decide by the individuals? Two examples from Sweden could be points of discussion
Ex.1. Parental leave Paid leave for 480 days. 390 days income-based (80 per cent of salary up to a certain maximum) In 1995 30 days was are reserved for one each parent, in 2002 60 days Women take out about 75 per cent of parental benefit days Discussion: Should the Goverment stipulate more? 50/50?
Ex.2. Women board directors EU-goal: 40 per cent women Sweden: under 30 per cent, increasing very slowly Discussion: Legislation or wait for voluntary adjustment?