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Prepared by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama © 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning All rights reserved. Behavior of Individuals Chapter 3 10 th Edition Managing Organizational Behavior Moorhead & Griffin
3–2 © 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning After studying this chapter you should be able to: 1.Explain the nature of the individual-organization relationship. 2.Define personality and describe personality attributes that affect behavior in organizations. 3.Discuss individual attitudes in organizations and how they affect behavior. 4.Describe basic perceptual processes and the role of attributions in organizations. 5.Explain how workplace behaviors can directly or indirectly influence organizational effectiveness. Chapter Learning Objectives
3–3 © 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning People in Organizations Psychological Contract –A person’s overall set of expectations regarding what he or she will contribute to the organization and what the organization, in return, will provide to the individual –Individuals contribute effort, skills, ability, time, loyalty –Organizations provide inducements in the form of tangible/intangible rewards
3–4 © 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 3.1 The Psychological Contract
3–5 © 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning People in Organizations Person-Job Fit –The extent to which the contributions made by the individual match the inducements offered by the organization Individual Differences –Personal attributes that vary from one person to another JOB
3–6 © 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning Personality and Organizations The “Big Five” Personality Traits –A set of fundamental traits that are especially relevant to organizations AgreeablenessThe ability to get along with others ConscientiousnessThe number of goals on which a person focuses NeuroticismExperiencing anger, anxiety, moodiness/insecurity ExtraversionThe quality of being comfortable with relationships OpennessThe capacity to entertain new ideas and to change as a result of new information
3–7 © 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 3.2 The “Big Five” Personality Framework
3–8 © 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning Personality and Organizations (cont’d) The Myers-Briggs Framework –Differentiation across four general dimensions Sensing Intuiting Judging Perceiving –Sixteen personality classifications result from the higher and lower positions of the general dimensions –Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a popular questionnaire used to assess personality types Communications styles Interaction preferences
3–9 © 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning Personality and Organizations (cont’d) Emotional Intelligence (EQ) –The extent to which people are self-aware, can manage their emotions, can motivate themselves, express empathy for others, and possess social skills Dimensions of EQ –Self-awareness –Managing emotions –Motivating oneself –Empathy –Social skills
3–10 © 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning Other Personality Traits at Work Locus of ControlThe extent to which a person believes his/her circumstances are a function of either his/her own actions or of external factors beyond his/her control Self-EfficacyA person’s beliefs about his/her capabilities to perform a task AuthoritarianismThe belief that power and status differences are appropriate within hierarchical social systems such as organizations MachiavellianismBehavior directed at gaining power and control of others Self-EsteemThe extent to which a person believes he or she is a worthwhile/deserving individual Risk PropensityThe degree to which a person is willing to take chances and make risky decisions
3–11 © 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning Attitudes in Organizations Attitudes –A person’s complexes of beliefs and feelings about specific ideas, situations, other people Structural Components of Attitudes –Affect: a person’s feelings toward something –Cognitions: the knowledge a person presumes to have about something –Intention: a component of an attitude that guides a person’s behavior
3–12 © 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning Attitudes in Organizations (cont’d) Cognitive Dissonance –The anxiety a person experiences when he/she simultaneously possesses two sets of knowledge or perceptions that are contradictory or incongruent Why Attitudes Change –Availability of new information –Changes in the object of the attitude –Object of the attitude becomes less important –To reduce cognitive dissonance
3–13 © 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning Attitudes in Organizations Key Work-Related Attitudes Job satisfactionThe extent to which a person is gratified or fulfilled by his or her work Organizational commitment (job commitment) A person’s identification with and attachment to an organization Affect and Mood in Organizations Positive affectivityUpbeat and optimistic, overall sense of well-being, seeing things in a positive light Negative affectivityDownbeat and pessimistic, seeing things in a negative way, seeming to be in a bad mood
3–14 © 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning Perception in Organizations Perception –The set of processes by which an individual becomes aware of and interprets information about the environment Selective perception Stereotyping Attribution Theory –We attribute causes to behavior based on our observations of certain characteristics of that behavior Consensus Consistency Distinctiveness
3–15 © 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 3.3 Basic Perceptual Processes
3–16 © 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 3.4 The Attribution Process
3–17 © 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning Types of Workplace Behavior Workplace Behavior –A pattern of action by the members of an organization that directly or indirectly influences organizational effectiveness Performance Behaviors –All of the total set of work-related behaviors that the organization expects the individual to display
3–18 © 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning Types of Workplace Behavior (cont’d) Dysfunctional Behaviors –Behaviors that detract from organizational performance Absenteeism: when an individual does not show up for work Turnover: when people quit their jobs Organizational Citizenship –The extent to which a person’s behavior makes a positive overall contribution to the organization
3–19 © 2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning Organizational Behavior in Action After reading the chapter: –What specifically would convince you that an organization would be likely to honor its psychological contract with you? –What actions could you personally take to increase the person-job fit for your first job after graduation? –Which of the “Big Five” personality traits would be the easiest to fake in an interview? Which would be the hardest?
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