2 Section 5 - The Fall of Rome Main IdeaEvents and conditions inside as well as outside the Roman Empire weakened it and led to its collapse in the west in the 400s.ObjectivesWhat problems weakened the empire in the 200s?How did Diocletian and Constantine attempt to reform the empire?What caused the invasion and ultimate fall of the empire in the 400s?
3 I. The Empire Weakensc After the Pax Romana, empire faced internal and external problems
4 I. The Empire WeakensLast Good Emperor died, Rome had no strong leader - civil wars broke outMarcus Aurelius Antoninus, the last of the Five Good Emperors Ruled from 161 to 180
5 I. The Empire WeakensInvasions - emperors increased size of army, creating economic crisis
6 Lucius Septimius Severus (146 - 211) I. The Empire WeakensEmpire became military dictatorship; legions deposed emperors, put their leaders on throneLucius Septimius Severus ( )Severus was a Roman general, Emperor from 193 to 211, and the first emperor to be born in Africa. His actions turned Rome into a military dictatorship, but he was popular for ending the rampant corruption of the reign of Commodus.
7 I. The Empire WeakensEmperors raised taxes; lead and copper coins caused inflation
8 II. Attempts at ReformDrastic reforms required if the empire was to surviveRoman slave revolt
9 Caesar Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus II. Attempts at Reform284 - Diocletian took power and changed empire into absolute monarchyCaesar Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus(244– 311)Reign lasted from20 November 284 to 1 May 305
10 II. Attempts at ReformDiocletian divided the empire; he ruled eastern half, co-emperor ruled the west
11 II. Attempts at ReformPut economy under imperial control and geared army toward defense - saved empire
13 II. Attempts at Reform 305 – Diocletian retired, civil war broke out 312 - Constantine declared emperor by his troops, restored order
14 II. Attempts at ReformConstantine legalized Christianity and built a new capital, Constantinople, in ByzantiumConstantine founds Nova Roma in 324 at the site of the earlier city of Byzantium (named after the Greek colonizer Byzas). It was the capital of the Roman Empire from Later called Constantinople in his honor.
15 III. Invasion and FallLate 300s - Huns forced Germanic tribes into Roman Empire
16 A. The Invadersc Huns attacked the Ostrogoths; attack frightened the Visigoths, who fled into Italy
17 Alaric, leader of the Visigoths A. The Invaders410 – Visigoths, led by Alaric, captured and sacked RomeAlaric, leader of the Visigoths
18 Vandals plundering Rome A. The Invaders450s - Vandals attacked Rome, destroying everything in their pathThe Vandals in RomeVandals plundering Rome
19 A. The Invaders451 - Attila led Hun attack on Gaul; Romans allied with Visigoths to defeat Huns
20 A. The InvadersAttila planned attack on Rome; Pope Leo I persuaded him to leave Italy
21 Romulus Augustus, last emperor of Western Roman Empire B. Fall of the West476 –Western Empire now ruled by Germanic tribes; Ostrogoth leader Odoacer overthrew last emperor477 Coin of Odoacer, depicted with a "barbarian" moustache.Romulus Augustus, last emperor of Western Roman Empire
22 B. Fall of the WestEastern Empire lasted until 1453; became known as the Byzantine Empire