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Modern World History Chapter 11, Section 2 Imperialism Case Studies

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1 Modern World History Chapter 11, Section 2 Imperialism Case Studies

2 A New Period of Imperialism
Europeans divided up Africa to get its resources with little consideration to the borders of political and ethnic groups (Setting the Stage) Unlike in 15th and 16th century exploration along Africa’s coasts, in 18th and 19th century imperialism Europeans exerted economic, political, and social control over the entire continent (#1)

3 Forms of Control To establish control over an area, Europeans used different forms of colonial control Colony Protectorate Spheres of influence Economic imperialism (see chart on page 346)

4 Methods of Management: Indirect Control
European rulers used either indirect or direct methods of management for their colonies, which influenced the type of government they had later when independent (#1) Indirect control – a method of management for a colony where local rulers handled much of the day to day administration of the colony but submitted to the authority of the colonial power Governing councils under indirect control would train local leaders for when they governed themselves (#2)

5 Methods of Management: Direct Control
Paternalism – a policy that some Europeans used to govern colonies in a parental way by providing for their needs, but not giving them rights and not training local people to govern Assimilation – a policy that the local populations of a colony would gradually over time adopt the culture of the governing colonial power The French abandoned the ideal of assimilation and settled for “association,” which recognized African institutions and culture, but regarded them as inferior to French culture (#2)

6 A British Colony: Nigeria
Gaining Control Britain’s rule over Nigeria is a case study for how Europeans gained control of a region and practiced different management methods to control it Britain gained control over Nigeria by getting some local leaders to sign treaties, and by using its military to defeat others (#1) The British Royal Niger Company took control over the palm oil trade along the Niger River after Britain gained a protectorate over the Niger River delta at the Berlin Conference (#2)

7 A British Colony: Nigeria
Managing the Colony Nigeria proved difficult to control for the British as it is one of the most culturally diverse regions in Africa (#1) Nigeria contains 250 ethnic groups, and its 3 largest groups differed politically, religiously, culturally, and linguistically (#2) Britain didn’t have enough troops to govern such a complex area, so it turned to indirect rule, but struggled to get all local leaders to submit to their authority (#3)

8 African Resistance People across Africa resisted European rule, but due to European superiority in weapons they were unable to maintain their independence everywhere except Ethiopia

9 Unsuccessful Movements: West Africa
These unsuccessful resistance attempts used both religious movements and military efforts Though unsuccessful, they were able to resist in places like Algeria and West Africa for many years (#1) Samori Touré – led the powerful Mandingo Kingdom in West Africa that resisted French rule for 16 years before succumbing due to a famine

10 Unsuccessful Movements: East Africa
East Africans objected to German insistence that they grow cash crop cotton instead of food and rebelled in what became known as the Maji Maji Rebellion (#2) East African resisters with spears were slaughtered by German machine guns and a famine that followed, leading to German reforms to appease their subjects (#3)

11 Ethiopia: A Successful Resistance
Menelik II – emperor of Ethiopia who resisted European control and built up a large arsenal of modern weapons, which were then used to defeat an invading Italian force in 1896, making it the only African nation to remain independent during imperialism

12 Negative Effects of Imperialism
Africans lost their lands and thousands lost their lives to disease (smallpox), resistance warfare, and famine due to cash crop farming (#1) Traditional cultures destroyed as leaders replaced, and people forced to find new ways to support themselves as traditional ways of life destroyed (#2) The political division of once unified people due to Europeans drawing artificial borders to their colonies that divided people creating problems when these nations became independent (#3)

13 Positive Effects of Imperialism
Reduced warfare Improved sanitation New schools and hospital were built increasing lifespans and literacy African products valued on international market (though most of the financial gains made by Europeans not Africans) Modernization (railroads, dams, and telephone lines built)

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